The Tenth Line Crack Archives

The Tenth Line Crack Archives

The Tenth Line Crack Archives

The Tenth Line Crack Archives

Pictures of African Americans During World War II

Select Audiovisual Records

During the 50th anniversary of World War II, as we honor those Americans who undauntedly and courageously contributed to the defense of our nation, often overlooked in our remembrances are the valiant efforts of African Americans. Throughout the war years they repeatedly had to battle adversaries on two fronts: the enemy overseas and racism at home. Black Americans recognized the paradox of fighting a world war for the "four freedoms" while being subjected to prejudicial practices in the United States. Thus, as the war unfolded, they vehemently insisted on the privileges of full citizenship. African Americans were ready to work and fight for their country, but at the same time they demanded an end to the discrimination against them.

To that end, over 2.5 million African-American men registered for the draft, and black women volunteered in large numbers. While serving in the Army, Army Air Forces, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, they experienced continuing discrimination and segregation. Despite these impediments, many African-American men and women met the challenge and persevered. They served with distinction, made valuable contributions to the war effort, and earned well-deserved praise and commendations for their struggles and sacrifices.

On the homefront, black Americans also did their part to support the war. They worked in war industries and in government wartime agencies, sold war bonds, voluntarily conserved goods needed for the war, performed civil defense duties, encouraged troops by touring camps as entertainers, risked their lives on the front lines to report the war, and performed many other vital services.

The images described in this leaflet illustrate African-American participation in World War II. The pictures were selected from the holdings of the Still Picture Branch (NNSP) of the National Archives and Records Administration. The majority of the pictures were chosen from the records of the Army Signal Corps in Record Group (RG) 111, the Department of the Navy in RG 80, the Coast Guard in RG 26, the Marine Corps in RG 127, and the Office of War Information in RG 208.

The pictures are listed in the brochure first by the five branches of the military and then by subject headings entitled Merchant Marine, Women in the Military, Training, Rest and Relaxation, Personalities, and the Homefront. Whenever possible, original captions are used and appear in quotation marks; however, no attempt was made to verify completely the accuracy of all the information included in these captions. Obvious errors and misspellings were corrected, but no effort was made to standardize identification of military ranks, which were cited by photographers in various ways. The captions also reflect the fact that the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) was renamed the Women's Army Corps (WAC) in July 1943, and the Air Corps (AC), after a reorganization, became the Army Air Forces (AAF) in March 1942. Many of the captions were edited for length, and extraneous information and pejorative terms were eliminated. Conversely, information was sometimes added to help the reader understand a caption. Within an original caption, this additional material appears in brackets. When no caption was available, one was created. If the photographers, artists, locations, or dates of the photograph were known, they also are listed. Following all of this information in the caption are image identification numbers, which are printed in italics.

At the end of this pamphlet are instructions for ordering complete sets of slides from this and other Select Audiovisual Records leaflets. Prints, negatives, or slides of individual items listed in the leaflets may also be ordered. To do so, first contact the Still Picture Branch (NNSP), National Archives, Washington, DC 20408, for a current price list and ordering information. With the exception of three color posters (indicated by an asterisk following the identification number), all of the pictures in this list are available only as black-and-white reproductions.

Inquiries about other World War II pictures that may be part of National Archives holdings should be submitted separately to the Still Picture Branch. Indicate as specifically as possible the desired names, dates, places, events, subjects, and other details. Please limit each request to three items.

Barbara Lewis Burger researched, selected, and arranged the items for this list and wrote the introductory information.


US Army

1. "On parade, the 41st Engineers at Ft. Bragg, NC in color guard ceremony." N.D. 208-NP-4HHH-2. National Archives Identifier: 535822

2. "An MP on motorcycle stands ready to answer all calls around his area. Columbus, Georgia." April 13, 1942. Pfc. Victor Tampone. 111-SC-134951. National Archives Identifier: 531136

3. "A company of men has set up its office between the columns (Doric) of an ancient Greek temple of Neptune, built about 700 B.C." At desk, front to rear: Sgts. James Shellman, Gilbert A. Terry, John W. Phoenix, Curtis A. Richardson, and Leslie B. Wood. In front of desk, front to rear: T/Sgt. Gordon A. Scott, M/Sgt. Walter C. Jackson, Sgt. David D. Jones, and WO Carlyle M. Tucker. Italy. September 22, 1943. 111-SC-181588. National Archives Identifier:  531170

4. "Three soldiers of the United States Army sit in place at a radar used by the 90th Coast Artillery in Casablanca, French Morocco." June 19, 1943. 111-SC-223413. National Archives Identifier: 531325 

5. "A kitchen was set up along the beach for the...labor battalion unloading the boats. This picture shows a couple of the men enjoying a hot meal for a change. Massacre Bay, Attu, Aleutian Islands." May 20, 1943. T/5 Vincent A. Wallace. 111-SC-174129,  National Archives Identifier: 531159

6. "Negro soldiers draw rations at the camp cook house at their station in Northern Ireland. Detachments of Negro troops were among the latest arrivals with the American forces in Northern Ireland." Ca. August 1942. Acme. 208-AA-46G-1,  National Archives Identifier: 535544 

7. "... American Army Engineer task force in Liberia find themselves in a land from which their ancestors came. Wash day and Pvt. Jack David scrubs out his things on top of a table made from native trees." Ca. July 1942. Fred Morgan. 111-SC-150980-B.  National Archives Identifier:  531144 

8. "Negro members of the 477th Antiaircraft Artillery, Air Warning Battalion, study maps in the operations section at Oro Bay, New Guinea." November 15, 1944. Pvt. Edward Grefe. 111-SC-305909, National Archives Identifier: 531348 

9. "U.S.-built Army trucks wind along the side of the mountain over the Ledo supply road now open from India into Burma..." n.d. 208-AA-45L-1, National Archives Identifier: 535540 

10. "A U.S. Army soldier and a Chinese soldier place the flag of their ally on the front of their jeep just before the first truck convoy in almost three years crossed the China border en route from Ledo, India, to Kunming, China, over the Stilwell road." February 6, 1945. Sgt. John Gutman. 208-AA-338A-1, National Archives Identifier:  535573   

11. "Two soldiers gather up their baggage as transportation arrives to take them to their outfit on Guam. Another soldier sits disconsolately awaiting further orders of transportation." August 4, 1945. 208-AA-63HH-1, National Archives Identifier:  535552 

12. "... troops in Burma stop work briefly to read President Truman's Proclamation of Victory in Europe." May 9, 1945. S/Sgt. Yarnell. 111-SC-262229, National Archives Identifier:  531341 

13. "Seeking to rescue a Marine who was drowning in the surf at Iwo Jima, this sextet of Negro soldiers narrowly missed death themselves when their amphibian truck was swamped by heavy seas. From left to right, back row, they are T/5 L. C. Carter, Jr., Private John Bonner, Jr., Staff Sergeant Charles R. Johnson. Standing, from left to right, are T/5 A. B. Randle, T/5 Homer H. Gaines, and Private Willie Tellie." March 11, 1945. S/Sgt. W. H. Feen. 127-N-114329, National Archives Identifier:  532547.

14. "Negro troops of the 24th Infantry, attached to the Americal Division, wait to advance behind a tank assault on the Jap[anese], along Empress Augusta Bay on Bougainville." 1944. 111-SC-202491, National Archives Identifier:  531254.

15. "Sgt. John C. Clark...and S/Sgt. Ford M. Shaw...(left to right) clean their rifles in bivouac area alongside the East West Trail, Bougainville. They are members of Co. E, 25th Combat Team, 93rd Division..." April 4, 1944. Lt. Schuman. 111-SC-364565, National Archives Identifier:  531404.

16. "Cautiously advancing through the jungle, while on patrol in Japanese territory off the Numa-Numa Trail, this member of the 93rd Infantry Division is among the first Negro foot soldiers to go into action in the South Pacific theater." May 1, 1944. 111-SC-189381-S, National Archives Identifier: 531184.

17. "Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, U.S. Third Army commander, pins the Silver Star on Private Ernest A. Jenkins of New York City for his conspicuous gallantry in the liberation of Chateaudun, France..." October 13, 1944. 208-FS-3489-2, National Archives Identifier:  535724.

18. "Pvt. Jonathan Hoag,...of a chemical battalion, is awarded the Croix de Guerre by General Alphonse Juin, Commanding General of the F.E.C., for courage shown in treatingwounded, even though he, himself, was wounded. Pozzuoli area, Italy." March 21, 1944. Rutberg. 111-SC-188939, National Archives Identifier: 531182. 

19. "These drivers of the 666th Quartermaster Truck Company, 82nd Airborne Division, who chalked up 20,000 miles each without an accident, since arriving in the European Theater of Operations." Left to right: T/5 Sherman Hughes, T/5 Hudson Murphy, Pfc. Zacariah Gibbs. Ca. May 1945. 208-AA-32P-3,   National Archives Identifier: 535533.

20. "Lt. Gen. Joseph T. McNarney, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater, inspects Honor Guard of MPs during his tour of the Fifth Army front at the 92nd Division Sector." January 4, 1945. Yaskell. 111-SC-380271, National Archives Identifier: 531415. 

21. "Easter morning, T/5 William E. Thomas...and Pfc. Joseph Jackson...will roll specially prepared eggs on Hitler's lawn." March 10, 1945. 1st Lt. John D. Moore. 111-SC-202330, National Archives Identifier: 531253.  

22. "Members of Battery A, 4520 AA stand by and check their equipment while the convoy takes a break." November 9, 1944. Musae. 111-SC-196212-S, National Archives Identifier: 531222.

23. "Pvt. William A. Reynolds..., an ambulance driver exhibits a .50-caliber machine gun bullet which lodged above the windshield of his vehicle when he was strafed by a German plane while driving at the front in France..." 1944. 208-AA-32P-18, National Archives Identifier: 535536.

24. "Two smiling French soldiers fill the hands of American soldiers with candy, in Rouffach, France, after the closing of the Colmar pocket." February 5, 1945. Todd. 111-SC-199861-S, National Archives Identifier: 531247.

25. "A platoon of Negro troops surrounds a farm house in a town in France, as they prepare to eliminate a German sniper holding up an advance. Omaha Beachhead, near Vierville-sur-Mer, France." June 10, 1944. Todd. 111-SC-190120, National Archives Identifier: 531188.

26. "Volunteer combat soldiers prepare for a day's training in preparation for shipment to veteran units at front lines in Germany." February 28, 1945. Edgren. 111-SC-337901, National Archives Identifier: 531357. 

27. "Cpl. Carlton Chapman...is a machine-gunner in an M-4 tank, attached to a Motor Transport unit near Nancy, France." 761st Mt. Bn. November 5, 1944. Ryan. 111-SC-196106-S, National Archives Identifier: 531221.

28. "... troops of a field artillery battery emplace a 155mm howitzer in France. They have been following the advance of the infantry and are now setting up this new position." June 28, 1944. Rothenberger. 111-SC-191890-S, National Archives Identifier: 531198.

29. "T/5 Dexter Clayton...and M/Sgt. Nelson T. Ewing...are tying wire to pole after sag is taken up. France." July 25, 1944. Gallo. 111-SC-191834-S, National Archives Identifier: 531197.

30. "This mine detector crew is demonstrating what they do before going to work on or around telephone poles in France." Left to right: M/Sgt. Bennie Burns, Sgt. Vincent MacNeill, Sgt. Frank Mack, Pfc. Riggles McCutcheon, T/Sgt. John A. Barbee, and Sgt. Thomas G. Alexander. July 13, 1944. Norton. 111-SC-191360-S, National Archives Identifier: 531193

31. "Soldiers of the 161st Chemical Smoke Generating Company, U.S. Third Army, move a barrel of oil in preparation to refilling an M-2 smoke generator, which spews forth a heavy cloud of white smoke. These men are engaged in laying a smoke screen to cover bridge building activities across the Saar River near Wallerfangen, Germany." December 11, 1944. Rothenberger. 111-SC-197552, National Archives Identifier: 531229

32. "Pvts. George Cofield...and Howard J. Davis...guard a newly-constructed bridge site over the Rhine River, built by U.S. Ninth Army Engineers." March 30, 1945. T/5 H. R. Weber and Pfc. Sperry. 111-SC-204770, National Archives Identifier: 531273

33. "Crews of U.S. light tanks stand by awaiting call to clean out scattered Nazi machine gun nests in Coburg, Germany." April 25, 1945. 208-AA-32P-10, National Archives Identifier: 535534.

34. "Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond, Commanding General of the 92nd Infantry (`Buffalo') Division in Italy, inspects his troops during a decoration ceremony." Ca. March 1945. 208-AA-47Y-1, National Archives Identifier: 535547.

35. "Members of a Negro mortar company of the 92nd Division pass the ammunition and heave it over at the Germans in an almost endless stream near Massa, Italy. This company is credited with liquidating several machine gun nests..." ca. November 1944. Acme. 208-AA-47U-6, National Archives Identifier: 535546.

36. "Tricky Nazi captured. German prisoner wearing civilian clothes, sits in jeep at south gate of walled city of Lucca, Italy, awaiting removal to a rear area." Ca. September 1944. 208-AA-305A-2, National Archives Identifier: 535566.

37. "Pfc. Robert Askew...with the 3278th Quartermaster Company, examines overshoes which have been turned in. Overshoes proved their worth and helped prevent trench foot during the rains." April 8, 1944. Lapidus. 111-SC-371005, National Archives Identifier: 531412.

38. "Body of American soldier is borne on stretcher from terrain in vicinity of Malmedy, Belgium, where on or about 17 December 1944, the Germans committed many atrocities." ca. December 1944. Taylor. 153-WC-1-19, National Archives Identifier: 532956.

39. "This Negro combat patrol advanced three miles north of Lucca (furthermost point occupied by American troops) to contact an enemy machine gun nest. Here a bazooka-man cuts loose at the target some 300 yards distant." September 7, 1944. Edwards. 111-SC-194328, National Archives Identifier: 531216.

40. "Negro `doughfoots' of the 92nd Infantry (`Buffalo') Division pursue the retreating Germans through the Po Valley. German forces in Italy have since capitulated unconditionally." Ca. May 1945. 208-AA-49E-1-13, National Archives Identifier: 535550.

41. "Genoa, Italy. In this newly liberated city the 92nd Division troops enter the Galleria Guiseppe [sic] Garibaldi." April 27, 1945. Leviton. 111-SC-337144, National Archives Identifier: 531355 

42. "Capt. Ezekia Smith, 370th Inf. Regt., 92nd Div., receives treatment at the 317th Collecting Station, for shell fragments in face and shoulders suffered near Querceta, Italy. Here, surgeon stitches the wound. Fifth Army, Pietrasanta Area, Italy." February 10, 1945. Bull. 111-SC-236685, National Archives Identifier: 531332.


Army Air Forces

43. "Howard A. Wooten." Graduated December 1944 from Air Corps School, Tuskegee, AL. Ca. December 1944. 18-T-44-K-17, National Archives Identifier: 512886 

44. "Members of the 99th Fighter Squadron of the Army Air Forces, famous all-Negro outfit, who are rapidly making themselves feared by enemy pilots, pose for a picture at the Anzio beachhead. In the foreground, head bared, is 1st Lt. Andrew Lane." Ca. February 1944. 80-G-54413, National Archives Identifier:  520624 

45. "1909th Engineers Aviation Battalion (Negro) aboard LST 683. " August 15, 1945. 80-G-337464, National Archives Identifier: 520691.

46. "With an officer giving them pointers from a giant map, pilots of an American P-51 Mustang fighter-bomber group learn their `target for today' during a briefing at a base in Italy. Both the map and the briefing chart (right) indicate another objective in Germany will soon be on the receiving end of their bullets and bombs. The men are members of the 15th U.S. Army Air Force, whose planes fly as part of the Mediterranean Allied Air Force." Ca. September 1944. 208-MO-18K-32983, National Archives Identifier: 535766.

47. "Fliers of a P-51 Mustang Group of the 15th Air Force in Italy `shoot the breeze' in the shadow of one of the Mustangs they fly." Left to right: Lt. Dempsey W. Morgan, Jr.; Lt. Car roll S. Woods; Lt. Robert H. Nelson, Jr.; Capt. Andrew D. Turner; and Lt. Clarence P. Lester. Ca. August 1944. 208-NP-6XXX-1, National Archives Identifier: 535842.  

48. "Pilots of a U.S. Army Air Forces fighter squadron, credited with shooting down 8 of the 28 German planes destroyed in dog-fights over the new Allied beachheads south of Rome, on Jan. 27, talk over the day's exploits at a U.S. base in the Mediterranean theater. Negro members of this squadron, veterans of the North African and Sicilian campaigns, were formerly classmates at a university in the southern U.S." February 1944. 208-MO-18H-22051, National Archives Identifier: 535763.

49. "American pilots of a P-51 Mustang fighter group, whose planes are named after wild horses that once roamed the U.S., listen intently as they are briefed for a mission at a base in Italy. Like cavalrymen of old, they ride down the enemy in their flying steeds and have destroyed German installations and personnel throughout Europe. They are members of the 15th U.S. Army Air Force, whose fighters and bombers are part of the Mediterranean Allied Air Force, which also includes British, French, and Polish fliers." Ca. September 1944. 208-N-32987, National Archives Identifier: 535788.  

50. "[Capt. Andrew D. Turner], who in a few minutes will be escorting heavy bombers en route to enemy targets, signals to the chief of his ground crew before taking off from a base in Italy. He is a member of the 15th U.S. Army Air Force, which has been smashing enemy objectives in Germany and the Balkans with both fighter and bomber craft. The pilot's plane, a Mustang, is named for a type of wild horse that once roamed in America." ca. September 1944. 208-MO-18K-32981, National Archives Identifier: 535765. 

51. "Lt. Andrew D. Marshall, pilot in a Negro fighter group of the Mediterranean Allied Air Force had his plane shot up by flak during a strafing mission over Greece before the Allied invasion. When he came down all that was left of the plane was his engine and himself. But he only suffered some bruises and cuts. Greeks hid him from the Nazis, then directed him to the British forces when they parachuted into Greece. Here Lt. Marshall tells an American pilot of the 51st Troop Carrier Wing of his harrowing experience." ca. October 1944. 208-AA-102E-5, National Archives Identifier:  535556 

52. "Members of the Nation's first Negro Navigation Cadets, who will receive their commissions in the Army Air Forces on February 26th, visited City Hall as guests of Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia this afternoon. They are shown on the steps of City Hall as the mayor greeted their commanding officer, Maj. Galen B. Price." February 16, 1944. Acme. 208-PU-113M-26, National Archives Identifier: 535936 

53. "Capts. Lemuel R. Custis (left) and Charles B. Hall, of the 99th Fighter Squadron of the U.S. Army Air Forces, chat while on leave in New York City. Their all-Negro squadron first went into action in North Africa on June 4, 1943, and is now closely supporting Allied ground forces advancing in Italy. The fighter group flies all types of combat missions--bomber escort, dive bombing, patrol for beachheads, and strafing. In one year, the squadron has made more than 3,000 sorties and has shot down 17 planes, scored 3 probables and damaged 6 other planes." Ca. June 1944. 208-MO-120H-29054, National Archives Identifier: 535767

54. "1st Lt. Lee Rayford...who has returned to the United States from Italy where he served with the 99th Fighter Squadron. The nature of his assignment here has not been announced. Other pilots formerly assigned to the 99th now back in America include 1st Lts. Walter I. Lawson, Charles W. Dryden, Graham Smith and Louis R. Purnell." N.d. 208-NP-6EEE-1, National Archives Identifier: 535836. 

55. "An armorer of the 15th U.S. Air Force checks ammunition belts of the .50 caliber machine guns in the wings of a P-51 Mustang fighter plane before it leaves an Italian base for a mission against German military targets. The 15th Air Force was organized for long range assault missions and its fighters and bombers range over enemy targets in occupied and satellite nations, as well as Germany itself." Ca. September 1944. 208-MO-18H-32984, National Archives Identifier: 535764 

56. "Members of the ground crew of a Negro fighter squadron of the 15th U.S. Air Force in Italy place a loaded wing tank on a P-51 Mustang before the group takes off on another mission escorting bombers over enemy targets. The squadron uses the auxiliary fuel tanks for long distance flights." Left to right: T/Sgt. Charles K. Haynes, S/Sgt. James A. Sheppard, and M/Sgt. Frank Bradley. N.d. 208-AA-49E-1-3, National Archives Identifier: 535549 

57. "Sharing credit for Negro fighter pilots' victory over Nazis are mechanics George Johnson...and James C. Howard... . Their outfit, the 99th Fighter Squadron, bagged 12 Nazi fighter planes in two days." Ca. February 1944. 208-AA-49E-1-1, National Archives Identifier: 535548 

58. "Capt. Wendell O. Pruitt..., one of the leading pilots of the 15th Air Force always makes sure that he leaves his valuable ring with his crew chief, S/Sgt. Samuel W. Jacobs." Ca. November 1944. 208-AA-46BB-4, National Archives Identifier: 535541 

59. "Staff Sgt. William Accoo..., crew chief in a Negro group of the 15th U.S. Air Force, washes down the P-51 Mustang fighter plane of his pilot with soap and water before waxing it to give it more speed." Ca. September 1944. 208-AA-46BB-30, National Archives Identifier: 535543

60. "Staff Sgt. Alfred D. Norris...crew chief of a Negro fighter group of the 15th U.S. Air Force, closes the canopy of a P-51 Mustang for his pilot, Capt. William T. Mattison...operations officer of the squadron based in Italy." N.d. 208-AA-46BB-6, National Archives Identifier: 535542 

61. "Staff officers of an...Air Corp Squadron near Fez, French Morocco. Left to right: Lt. Col. Benjamin O. Davis, C.O.; Capt. Hayden C. Johnson, Adjutant; Capt. E. Jones, Service Det.; Lt. Wm. R. Thompson, Armaments; Lt. Hervert E. Carter, Engineers; Lt. Erwin B. Lawrence, Operations; Lt. George R. Currie, Ordnance." May 12, 1943. 111-SC-184968, National Archives Identifier: 531174 

62. "Jackie Wilson (left) and Ray Robinson have fought two bitterly contested ring encounters. Now it's Sgt. Wilson and Pvt. Robinson in the same Aviation Squadron at Mitchel Field, New York, and they stand shoulder to shoulder--ready for a fight to the death on the Axis." 1943. 208-PU-214B-5, National Archives Identifier: 535945 


US Navy

63. "The crew of the U.S. Navy submarine chaser [PC 1264] salutes the United States flag as the 173-foot long escort vessel is commissioned in a U.S. East Coast port. As soon as they qualify through experience and training, eight members of the crew of 53 Negro sailors will replace the present chief petty officers." May 1, 1944. 208-N-26553, National Archives Identifier: 535785. 

64. "Negro sailors of the U.S.S. Mason (DE 529) commissioned at Boston Navy Yard on 20 Mar. 1944 proudly look over their ship which is the first to have [a] predominately Negro crew." March 20, 1944. 80-G-218861, National Archives Identifier: 520644 

65. "A gun crew of six Negroes who were given the Navy Cross for standing by their gun when their ship was damaged by enemy attack in the Philippine area." Crew members: Jonell Copeland, AtM2/c; Que Gant, StM; Harold Clark, Jr., StM; James Eddie Dockery, StM; Alonzo Alexander Swann, StM; and Eli Benjamin, StM. Ca. 1945. 80-G-334029, National Archives Identifier: 520688 

66. "Negro messmen aboard a United States Navy cruiser who volunteered for additional duty as gunners. They have been doing proficient work under battle conditions on a task force in the Pacific under the instruction of the officers at the right." July 10, 1942. 80-G-21743, National Archives Identifier: 520597 

67. "His crew sank a German submarine." U.S.S. Otter (DE 210). Ca. March 1945. 208-NP-7HHH-1, National Archives Identifier: 535845 

68. "Capt. H. W. Taylor making award presentations aboard U.S.S. Cowpens (CVL 25). Fred Magee, Jr., St3/c USN, receiving commendation of the Secretary of the Navy." The commendation was for attempting to rescue, at a risk to his own life, a shipmate from drowning. October 1944. 80-G-291220, National Archives Identifier: 520664 

69. "Charlie Dunston, S1/c, amputee case at the Naval Hospital, Philadelphia, PA..." August 1, 1945. Ens. Thomas Binford. 80-G-377110, National Archives Identifier:  520698 

70. Children aboard the SS Jean Lafitte, bound for the States with internees freed from a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines, gather around Pendleton (Bumblebee) Thompson. Thompson volunteered as cook in the camp where they were interned. Ca. April 1945. 80-G-128907, National Archives Identifier: 520635 

71. "Coxswain William Green observes safety precautions in checking his pistol while Albert S. Herbert, Quartermaster first class..., stands by with a clip of ammunition and holster belt, ready to complete the formalities." N.d. 208-NP-7CCC-1. National Archives Identifier:  535844 

72. "Enlisted men serving on Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides...placing 6-inch shells in magazines at the Naval Ammunition Depot." From left to right: S1/c Dodson B. Samples, S1/c Raymond Wynn, S1/c Edward L. Clavo, and S1/c Jesse Davis. N.d. 80-G-123941. National Archives Identifier: 520631 

73. "... entrance to the U.S. Navy Base Camp Annex, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides." Guards on duty: S1/c Dook Bland and S1/c Taft Gray. N.d. 80-G-123962. National Archives Identifier: 520632 

74. "Construction of the prefabricated steel storage warehouse [by members of the 34th Construction Bn.] at Halavo Seaplane Base, Florida Island [Solomon Islands]." September 19, 1943. 80-G-89138.  National Archives Identifier: 520629 

75. "M. D. Shore, S1/c, operating a forklift truck at the Navy supply depot at Guam, Marianas." June 8, 1945. 80-G-330221. National Archives Identifier: 520685 

76. "Halavo Seaplane Base, Florida Island, Solomons, plumbing department personnel. The entire front row except the CPO are natives..." N.d. 71-SB-28-3. National Archives Identifier:  518842 

77. "34th CBs working on purification of their water supply at Solomon Islands." Ca. August 1945. 80-G-203393. National Archives Identifier: 520640 

78. "Enlisted men aboard the U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CV-14) hear the news of Japan's surrender." August 14, 1945. Lt. B. Gallagher. 80-G-469544. National Archives Identifier: 520868.   

79. "Group of recently appointed Negro officers." Left to right, front row: Ensigns George Clinton Cooper, Graham Edward Martin, Jesse Walter Arbor, John Walter Reagan, Reginald Ernest Goodwin. Back row, left to right, Ensigns Phillip George Barnes, Samuel Edward Barnes, Dalton Louis Baugh, James Edward Hare, Frank Ellis Sublett, and WO Charles Byrd Lear. February 1944. 80-G-300215. National Archives Identifier: 520671 

80. "Lt. Cmdr. Grady Avent, USNR, Commanding Officer at the Navy's largest Negro base, Manana Barracks, Hawaii, inspects plans presented by Public Works Officer, Lt. Edward S. Hope, USNR, [right] Navy's highest ranking Negro officer." N.d. 208-NP-8E-1. National Archives Identifier: 535854 

81. "A dispensary at a Naval ammunition depot in the Marianas. Prevention against a case of sore throat. Patient--Dan Kennedy, S1/c, `Dr.' Stanton B. Shaw, PhM2/c, who is in charge." June 8, 1945. 80-G-330215. National Archives Identifier: 520684 

82. "Group of CBs acting as stretcher bearers for the 7th Marines. Peleliu." September 1944. Sgt. McBride. 127-N-96475. National Archives Identifier: 532537 

83. "Leading petty officers of one of the Navy's new Logistics Support Companies... This company is undergoing combat training by Service Force Advance Base Section at a station on Oahu Island prior to their departure for duty in a combat area." Left to right, front row: Boatswain Mate Second Class James W. Chase and Coxswain John D. Perry. Left to right, back row: Coxswains Raymond C. Vaultz, Elmer Williams, Darrel M. Beech, and Jimmie Cook. May 10, 1945. 208-AA-43TT-1. National Archives Identifier:  535537 

84. "E. Perry, Seaman 1/c, is splicing steel cable... This is a highly specialized naval activity. Some of the most constructive work at any naval command is performed by the `riggers.'" May 17, 1945. 208-NP-7QQ-6. National Archives Identifier: 535850 

85. "Looking to sea from the signal bridge is Napoleon Reid, Seaman 2/c., USNR, shown standing on lookout watch on a ship somewhere in the Pacific." March 19, 1945. 208-NP-7III-1.National Archives Identifier: 535846 

86. "William Baldwin, first Navy Negro recruit for General Service." June 2, 1942. 208-NP-8B-2. National Archives Identifier:  535852 

87. "Crewmen aboard U.S.S. Tulagi (CVE-72) en route to southern France for Aug. 15th invasion. Miles Davis King, StM 2/c, carrying a loaded magazine to his 20mm gun." August 1944. 80-G-417623. National Archives Identifier:  520763 

88. "Negro mechanics work on PBY at NAS Seattle, WA, Alvin V. Morrison, AMM 3/c, doing overhaul." April 27, 1944. 80-G-233274. National Archives Identifier: 520648 

89. "Richard Salter, CK 3/c, a talker of a gun station, aboard the U.S.S. Tulagi (CVE-72) off the coast of southern France." August 1944. Lt. Wayne Miller. 80-G-468780.  National Archives Identifier: 520858 

90. "Steward's mates joke as they dry silverware in the wardroom of U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CV-14)." November 1944. Lt. Wayne Miller. 80-G-469560. National Archives Identifier:  520869

91. "... [The] tug YTM 466, operating out of the Mine Warfare School, Yorktown, VA. Her captain is T. Perdue, Boatswain Mate 1/c..." May 17, 1945. 208-NP-7QQ-4. National Archives Identifier:  535848 

92. A deck hand loops a manila line. N.d. 208-NP-7QQ-5. National Archives Identifier:  535849 


US Marine Corps

93. "Breaking a tradition of 167 years, the U.S. Marine Corps started enlisting Negroes on June 1, 1942. The first class of 1,200 Negro volunteers began their training 3 months later as members of the 51st Composite Defense Battalion at Montford Point, a section of the 200-square-mile Marine Base, Camp Lejeune, at New River, NC. The first Negro to enlist was Howard P. Perry shown here." N.d. Roger Smith. 208-NP-10KK-1. National Archives Identifier: 535870 

94. "The first Negro to be commissioned in the Marine Corps has his second lieutenant's bars pinned on by his wife. He is Frederick C. Branch of Charlotte, NC." November 1945. 127-N-500043. National Archives Identifier: 532577 

95. "Handling Negro Marine public relations at the Montford Point Camp here are Sgt. Lucious A. Wilson (left)..., and his photographer, Cpl. Edwin K. Anderson... Sgt. Wilson is a former correspondent for the New York Amsterdam News...." N.d. 208-NP-10FFFF-1. National Archives Identifier:  535867 

96. "Marine Cpl. Robert L. Hardin...checks the main distributing frame in Montford Point's headquarters for line difficulties." N.d. Sgt. L. A. Wilson. 127-N-8768. National Archives Identifier: 532515 

97. "... Although a dress uniform is not a part of the regular equipment, most of the Negro Marines spend $54 out of their pay for what is generally considered the snappiest uniform in the armed services... Photo shows a group of the Negro volunteers in their dress uniforms." Ca. May 1943. Roger Smith. 208-NP-10NN-2. National Archives Identifier: 535871

98. "First Negro Marines decorated by the famed Second Marine Division somewhere in the Pacific (left to right) Staff Sgt Timerlate Kirven...and Cpl. Samuel J. Love, Sr... They received Purple Hearts for wounds received in the Battle of Saipan..." N.d. 208-NP-10SSSS-1. National Archives Identifier:  535872 

99. "Pfc. Luther Woodward..., a member of the Fourth Ammunition Company, admires the Bronze Star awarded to him for `his bravery, initiative and battle-cunning.' ..." The award was later upgraded to the Silver Star. April 17, 1945. Cpl. Irving Deutch. 127-N-119492. National Archives Identifier: 532553 

100. "Marines, following the rapid Japanese retreat northward on Okinawa, pause for a moments rest at the base of a Japanese war memorial. They are (on steps) Pfc. F. O. Snowden; Navy Pharmacist's Mate, 2nd class R. Martin; (on monument, left to right) Pvt. J. T. Walton, Pvt. R. T. Ellenberg, Pfc. Clyde Brown, Pvt. Robb Brawner. Photo was taken during the battle for Okinawa." April 12, 1945. Cpl. Art Sarno. 127-N-117624.®¯ National Archives Identifier: 532550

101. "Peleliu Island...Marines move through the trenches on the beach during the battle." September 15, 1944. Fitzgerald. 127-N-9527. National Archives Identifier: 532535 

102. "Iwo Jima...Negro Marines on the beach at Iwo Jima are, from left to right, Pfcs. Willie J. Kanody, Elif Hill, and John Alexander." March 1945. C. Jones. 127-N-11383. National Archives Identifier:  532546 

103. "Negro Marines, attached to the Third Ammunition Company, take time out from supplying ammunition to the front line on Saipan. Riding captured...bicycle is Pfc. Horace Boykin; and left to right, Cpl. Willis T. Anthony, Pfc. Emmitt Shackelford, and Pfc. Eugene Purdy." June 1944. 127-N-8600. National Archives Identifier: 532531 

104. "Aboard a Coast Guard-manned transport..., a Negro Marine, Robert Stockman, goes over his carbine with Coast Guardsmen." Ca. February 1944. 26-G-321. National Archives Identifier: 513195 

105. "Aboard a Coast Guard-manned transport somewhere in the Pacific, these Negro Marines prepare to face the fire of Jap[anese] gunners." Ca. February 1944. 26-G-321.National Archives Identifier:  513197 

106. "Surrounded by a veteran crew of Marines who have spent 15 months in the Southwest and Central Pacific, this gun, named the 'Lena Horne' by its crew, points majestically skyward. The gun is manned by members of [the 51st] Defense Battalion, one of two such Negro units in the Corps." 1945. Nicholson. 127-N-12174. National Archives Identifier: 532556 

107. "Two Negro Marine movie operators." January 1945. 127-N-109561. National Archives Identifier: 532539 

108. "Two Negro duck [DUKW] drivers turn riflemen after their vehicle is destroyed." February 19, 1945. Christian. 127-N-111123. National Archives Identifier: 532545 

109. "Marine Sgt. F. Smit...and Cpl. S. Brown...open a coconut to get a cool drink on Saipan." June 1944. 127-GW-1359-85636. National Archives Identifier: 

532391 

110. "Carrying a Jap[anese] prisoner from stockade to be evacuated and treated for malnutrition. Iwo Jima." February 23, 1945. Don Fox. 127-N-110622. National Archives Identifier:  532544 

111. "Negro assault troops await orders D-day to attack enemy shortly after they had come ashore at Saipan in the Marianas." June 1944. T/Sgt. William Fitch. U.S. Coast Guard, 127-N-83928. National Archives Identifier:  532528 

112. "Coast Guardsman Aught Guttery, Jr., first class Steward's Mate,...is shown aboard the Coast Guard-manned assault transport on which he served during the initial landings at Guam." N.d. 208-NP-8WWW-9. National Archives Identifier: 535864 

113. "Coast Guardsman Charles Tyner, Fireman first class, examines the jagged shrapnel hole in the helmet he wore during the initial assault on the beaches of Southern France... Tyner suffered just a superficial scratch... ." N.d. 26-G-2748. National Archives Identifier:  513183 

114. "Two Coast Guard officers brave the wintry blasts of snow aboard a Coast Guard cutter on the North Atlantic patrol. The officers who give their cheery greetings despite the icy weather are Lt.(jg.) Clarence Samuels (right) and Ens. J.J. Jenkins (left)..." N.d. 26-G-3686. National Archives Identifier:  513211 

115. "Five steward's mates stand at their battle stations, as a gun crew aboard a Coast Guard-manned frigate in the southwest Pacific. On call to general quarters, these Coast Guardsmen man a 20mm AA gun. They are, left to right, James L. Wesley, standing with a clip of shells; L. S. Haywood, firing; William Watson, reporting to bridge by phone from his gun captain's post; William Morton, loading a full clip, assisted by Odis Lane, facing camera across gun barrel." N.d. 26-G-3797. National Archives Identifier: 513214 

116. "... crew members who man the 20mm guns of a Coast Guard fighting ship have won an enviable reputation for gunnery results, due primarily to incessant practice in assembly and operation. As expressed by the intent faces in this picture, these men play for keeps." N.d. 26-G-3154. National Archives Identifier:  513191 

117. Coast Guardsman. N.d. 208-NP-8WWW-3. National Archives Identifier:  535862 

118. "... crew of a 20mm gun aboard a Coast Guard fighting ship are hanging up some new records for speed and accuracy. Left to right: Daniel Moore, Walter L. Bottoms, William Wheeler, and Rudolph C. Grimes, all Steward's Mates, second class." N.d. 26-G-3151.National Archives Identifier:  513190 

119. "Two Ohio Coast Guardsmen [John R. Smith, on the left, and Daniel J. Kaczorowski] stand at their gun aboard a Coast Guard-manned invasion transport on which they served during the invasion of Normandy." Smith, steward's mate, third class, also served during assaults against North Africa, Sicily, and Italy. N.d. 26-G-2624. National Archives Identifier:  513179 

120. "Coast Guardsman George W. Steele...is serving aboard a Coast Guard-manned frigate in the North Pacific... [He] has been stationed with his vessel for the past 16 months." N.d. 208-NP-8UUU-1. National Archives Identifier: 535859 

121. "A startling change is affected by Coast Guardsman Dorall Austin, Steward's Mate third class, at the alarm of general quarters aboard his Coast Guard assault transport somewhere in the Pacific. With the enemy sighted Austin springs from his duty in the ship's galley to his battle station as a gunner..." N.d. 208-NP-8UUU-2. National Archives Identifier: 535860 

122. "Coast Guardsman Marvin Sanders, Fireman first class,... is presently serving in the engine room of a Coast Guard manned Army repair ship doing a vital job repairing the invading fleet in the southwest Pacific." N.d. 208-NP-8WWW-8. National Archives Identifier: 535863 

123. "... These Negro members of a Coast Guard Horse Patrol unit patrol beaches in the New Jersey area in all kinds of weather. Left to right: Seamen first class C. R. Johnson, Jesse Willis, Joseph Washington, and Frank Garcia." N.d. 208-NP-8CCC-1. National Archives Identifier:   535853 

124. "Coast Guardsman Joseph K. Noel, Radioman third class, is pictured on duty aboard a Coast Guard-manned frigate doing patrol duties in the North Pacific." N.d. 208-NP-8VVV-5. National Archives Identifier:  535861 

125. "Coast Guardsman Levern Robinson, Seaman first class, is shown at work in the ship's laundry, aboard a Coast Guard manned troop transport operating in the Atlantic. The transport is engaged in bringing home our victorious fighting men from liberated Europe for well-earned leaves and reassignments." N.d. 208-NP-8WWW-10. National Archives Identifier: 535865 

126. "These Coast Guardsmen, crew members of a Coast Guard combat cutter, help patrol sea lanes and protect convoys bound for the European battle zone. Left to right: Atwood Taylor, Steward's Mate first class; Richard U. Mitchell, Steward's Mate first class; R. E. Bird, Jr., Steward's Mate second class; Robert Woldon, Steward's Mate first class; Grover Taylor, Steward's Mate first class; [and] Jacob A. Lawrence, Steward's Mate second class, who is also the ship's artist." N.d. 208-NP-8LLL-1. National Archives Identifier: 535856 


Merchant Marine

127. "Captain and crew of a new Liberty Ship [SS Booker T. Washington] just after it completed its maiden voyage to England. (L-R) C. Lastic, Second Mate; T. J. Young, Midshipman; E. B. Hlubik, Midshipman; C. Blackman, Radio Operator; T. A. Smith, Chief Engineer; Hugh Mulzac, Captain of the ship; Adolphus Fokes, Chief Mate; Lt. H. Kruley; E. P. Rutland, Second Engineer; and H. E. Larson, Third Engineer." Captain Hugh Mulzac is fourth from the left on the first row. February 8, 1943. Baum. 111-SC-180665. National Archives Identifier:  531168 

128. "Reginald Brandon...recently completed the eight-month course in Radio Operations and Maintenance at Gallup's Island [MA] Radio Training School of the Maritime Commission. He is the first Negro graduate of the school. . . . Upon assignment he will have the rank of ensign." N.d. Roger Smith. 208-NP-5P-1. National Archives Identifier:  535829 

129. "Ens. Joseph Banks Williams...first Negro to graduate from the U.S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps, has been assigned to active duty on the S.S. Booker T. Washington..." N.d. 208-NP-5R-1. National Archives Identifier:  535833 

130. "Members of a `CHECKERBOARD' crew that brought a Liberty Ship from the U.S. to England, fondle their mascot `BOOKER.' (L-R) R. C. Woods, A. M. Mulzac, W. B. Shepard, and S. O'Neil." February 6, 1943. Baum. 111-SC-180663. National Archives Identifier:  531167 

131. A seaman with the U.S. Maritime Service. N.d. 208-NP-3ZZ-4. National Archives Identifier:  535819 

132. Two U.S. Maritime Service seamen in front of a 4th War Loan poster. N.d. 208-NP-3ZZ-3. National Archives Identifier:  535818 

133. "Artist George Wright, an American merchant seaman, presents to Russian Captain Orset Chevstov a painting depicting a Soviet woman war worker and an American seaman unloading a U.S. Lend-Lease tank at a Soviet port..." August 18, 1944. Wide World Photos. 208-N-31563. National Archives Identifier:  535787 

134. A mariner in the U.S. Maritime Service. N.d. 208-NP-3ZZ-2. National Archives Identifier: 535817

135. "Lt.(jg.) Stanly Marlowe Smith, U.S. Maritime Service; [Mrs. Marion H. Elliott] Assistant Executive Secretary of the National Council of Negro Women; and Mrs. B.L. Derrick, Chairman." Lt. Smith is pictured at a war bond rally in Washington, DC, where he spoke and was honored. August 8, 1944. 357-G-83-4308. National Archives Identifier:  542396 

136. "... Clifford R. Jenkins, Jr... After a course at the Cooks and Bakers School at the U.S. Maritime Training Base, Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn [NY],...is now baking for merchant seamen aboard the [SS] Patrick Henry, first Liberty Ship launched." N.d. 357-G-93-548. National Archives Identifier:  542398 

137. "Capt. Clifton Lastic, Master of Liberty Ship [SS] Bert Williams chats with Joe Curran, President of N.M.U. [National Maritime Union]." The SS Bert Williams is named for an African-American comedian. N.d. 357-G-86-510. National Archives Identifier:  542397   

138. "Aboard a Victory ship en route to the Pacific war zone, Chief Mate Earl Stanfield coaches Bos'n Maxie Weisbarth (with whiskers) in mysteries of navigation." N.d. 357-G-98-5728. National Archives Identifier:  542399 

139. "Arnold R. Fesser, oiler, 17 years at sea: `We got a big job to do until this war is won. We will keep them sailing until the end. Then we have got time for holidays." October 14, 1944. 357-G-203-4690.National Archives Identifier: 542400 

140. The launching party for the SS Harriet Tubman. June 3, 944.Guy Nicholas. 208-NP-5E-3. National Archives Identifier:  535828 


Women in the Military

141. "U.S. Army nurses, newly arrived, line the rail of their vessel as it pulls into port of Greenock, Scotland, in European Theater of Operations. They wait to disembark as the gangplank is lowered to the dock." August 15, 1944. Meyer. 111-SC-192605-S. National Archives Identifier: 531204 

142. "Surgical ward treatment at the 268th Station Hospital, Base A, Milne Bay, New Guinea. Left to right: Sgt. Lawrence McKreever, patient; 2nd Lt. Prudence Burns, ward nurse; 2nd Lt. Elcena Townscent, chief surgical nurse; and an unidentified nurse." June 22, 1944. Pfc. Michael Pitcairn. 111-SC-287482. National Archives Identifier: 530771 

143. "Pfc. Johnnie Mae Welton, Negro WAC, laboratory technician trainee, conducts an experiment in the serology laboratory sf the Fort Jackson Station Hospital, Fort Jackson, SC." March 20, 1944.Jensen. 111-SC-341534. National Archives Identifier:  531360 

144. "WAACs at work in Temp. Bldg. `M', 26th Street, Washington, DC, WAAC Headquarters. Left to right: Lts. Harriet West and Irma Cayton,...going over their recruiting schedule report." 1942.Wilfred Morgan. 111-SC-144958. National Archives Identifier:  531139 

145. "Auxiliaries Ruth Wade and Lucille Mayo (left to right) further demonstrate their ability to service trucks as taught them during the processing period at Fort Des Moines and put into practice at Fort Huachuca, Arizona." December 8, 1942. Oster. 111-SC-162466. National Archives Identifier:  531153 

146. "... WAAC cooks prepare dinner for the first time in new kitchen at Fort Huachuca, Arizona." December 5, 1942.Oster. 111-SC-162454. National Archives Identifier:  531152   

147. "Capt. Della H. Raney, Army Nurse Corps, who now heads the nursing staff at the station hospital at Camp Beale, CA, has the distinction of being the first Negro nurse to report to yuty in the present war..." April 11, 1945. 208-PU-161K-1. National Archives Identifier: 535942 

148. "The first Negro WACs to arrive [on] the continent of Europe were 800 girls of the 6888th Central Postal Directory Bn, who had also been the first to arrive in England. After the battalion had set up its facilities at Rouen, France, it held an `open house', which was attended by hundreds of Negro soldiers. Pvt. Ruth L. James,...of the battalion area is on duty at the gate." May 26, 1945.Pfc. Stedman. 111-SC-237072. National Archives Identifier:  531333 

149. "Somewhere in England, Maj. Charity E. Adams,...and Capt. Abbie N. Campbell,...inspect the first contingent of Negro members of the Women's Army Corps assigned to overseas service." 6888th Central Postal Directory Bn. February 15, 1945. Holt. 111-SC-200791. National Archives Identifier: 531249 

150. "Members of the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion take part in a parade ceremony in honor of Joan d'Arc at the marketplace where she was burned at the stake." May 27, 1945.Pfc. Stedman. 111-SC-426441. National Archives Identifier:  531431 

151. "The `Top-Kick' looks them over at Camp Shanks, New York, Transportation Corps staging area of the New York Port of Embarkation. Tech. Sgt. Tommye Berry, Acting 1st Sgt. of the Negro WAC group..." April 16, 1945. 208-PU-10D-7. National Archives Identifier: 535929 

152. "Lt. Florie E. Gant...tends a patient at a prisoner-of war hospital somewhere in England." October 7, 1944. 112-SGA-Nurses-44-1676. National Archives Identifier: 531495 

153. "A company of Negro WAACs was reviewed by the Hon. Lester A. Walton, U.S. Minister to Liberia, recently on a visit to an American camp near Monrovia [Liberia]. The WAACs are shown as they lined up for review." N.d. 208-NP-6KKK-5. National Archives Identifier: 535837 

154. "Willa Beatrice Brown, a 31-year-old Negro American, serves her country by training pilots for the U.S. Army Air Forces. She is the first Negro woman to receive a commission as a lieutenant in the U.S. Civil Air Patrol." N.d. 208-FS-793-1. National Archives Identifier:  535717 

155. "Two Negro SPARS pause on the ladder of the dry-land ship `U.S.S. Neversail' during their `boot' training at the U.S. Coast Guard Training Station, Manhattan Beach, Brooklyn, NY. They are recent enlistees and have the ratings of apprentice seamen. In front is SPAR Olivia Hooker and behind her is SPAR Aileen Anita Cooks." N.d. 208-NP-10K-1. National Archives Identifier:  535869 

156. "Inspecting a Grumman Wildcat engine on display at the U.S. Naval Training School (WR) Bronx, NY, where she is a `boot' is WAVE Apprentice Seaman Frances Bates." 1945. 80-G-183373. National Archives Identifier:  520638 

157. "Hospital Apprentices second class Ruth C. Isaacs, Katherine Horton and Inez Patterson (left to right) are the first Negro WAVES to enter the Hospital Corps School at National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD." March 2, 1945. 80-G-126506. National Archives Identifier: 520634 

158. "Cmdr. Thomas A. Gaylord, USN (Ret'd), administers oath to five new Navy nurses commissioned in New York..." Phyllis Mae Dailey, the Navy's first African-American nurse, is second from the right. March 8, 1945. 80-G-48365. National Archives Identifier:  520618 

159. "Lt.(jg.) Harriet Ida Pickens and Ens. Frances Wills, first Negro Waves to be commissioned. They were members of the final graduating class at Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School (WR) Northampton, MA." December 21, 1944.Cropped view. 80-G-297441. National Archives Identifier:  520670 


Training

160. "Sixteen Negro soldiers recently won the coveted `wings' of the U.S. Army paratroopers at Fort Benning, in the southern U.S. state of Georgia. The picture shows some of them riding high in a C-47 transport plane preparing to make one of the required five qualifying jumps." March 1944. 208-FS-1783-1. National Archives Identifier: 535719 

161. "Just after stepping out of Ft. Benning [GA] Theater No. 4 at the conclusion of the 16th O.C.S. graduating exercises, 2nd Lts. Henry C. Harris, Jr.; Frank Frederick Doughton; Elmer B. Kountze; and Rogers H. Beardon (behind) start pinning their brass bars on each others shoulders." May 29, 1942. Golz. 111-SC-137679. National Archives Identifier: 531137 .

162. "Lt. B. Holmes instructing cadres in the art of parry and long thrust in bayonet practice. Left to right: T/Sgt. Leroy Smith, Pvt. George W. Jones, and Sgt. Leo Shorty, look on." 92d Division, Fort McClellan, AL. November 1942. 111-SC-147979.  National Archives Identifier:   531140   

163. "A squad of non-coms, cadres of the 92nd Division, get a refresher course in charging through smoke. When the main body of troops arrives it will be up to the cadres to train them." Fort McClellan, AL. November 1942. 111-SC-147998. National Archives Identifier:  531141 

164. "Men of the Sixteenth Battalion, crack all-Negro training unit at the Field Artillery Replacement Center, Fort Bragg, NC, are shown in their daily rifle calisthenics. After nine weeks training the men have developed a rhythm and precision in these body building exercises that is seldom equalled by more experienced troops." February 1943. 111-SC-166875. National Archives Identifier: 531155 

165. "Address of welcome to [Army Air Corps] cadets in front of Booker T. Washington Monument on the grounds of Tuskegee Institute." Tuskegee, AL. August 1941. 111-SC-122432. National Archives Identifier:  531132 

166. "[Army Air Corps] cadets reporting to Captain B[enjamin] O. Davis, Jr. commandant of cadets." Tuskegee Field, AL. September 1941. 111-SC-122434. National Archives Identifier:  531133 

167. "Officer returns salute as he passes the cadets lined up during review." Tuskegee Field, AL. N.d. 208-NP-5QQ-6. National Archives Identifier: 535831 

168. "Basic and advanced flying school for Negro Air Corps cadets, Tuskegee, Alabama... In the center is Capt. Roy F. Morse, Air Corps... He is teaching the cadets how to send and receive code." On the left, from front to rear: James B. Knighten, Lee Rayford, and C. H. Flowers. On the right, from front to rear: George Levi Knox, Sherman W. White, and Mac Ross. January 1942. Wilfred Morgan. 208-NP-5QQ-3. National Archives Identifier:   535830 

169. "Pilots at Selfridge Field [MI] learn to carry out bombing missions as they would carry them out under actual combat conditions. These pilots are being briefed for a practice raid." Ca. 1943. 208-VM-1-5-68A. National Archives Identifier:  535963 

170. "Negro pilots in one of the flight formations which will soon carry them over enemy territory. Here they are flying the shark-nosed P-40 fighter aircraft." Selfridge Field, MI. Ca. 1943. 208-VM-1-5-69G. National Archives Identifier:   535964 

171. "Negro recruits at Manhattan Beach Training Station, [NY]." N.d. 26-G-142-2114. National Archives Identifier: 513165 

172. "... George C. Fields, 32, points proudly to the honor certificate presented him yesterday at graduation exercises for the tenth Negro class to be graduated from the Navy's Service Schools at the U.S. Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, IL. Fields served as President Roosevelt's valet for four years before entering the Navy." Ca. 1943. 208-NP-7QQ-2. National Archives Identifier: 535847 

173. "As a landing barge noses onto the beach, members of the Negro Seabee Battalion clamber ashore. This assault training is supplemental to the Seabees' chief work as construction crews for the U.S. Navy." Ca. December 1942. 208-N-570.  ( african_americans_wwii_173.jpg)

174. "CQM L. J. Russell, USNR, teaching navigation to Charles W. Divers, QM2c; Royal H. Gooden, QM2c; Lewis F. Blanton, QM3c; Calvin Bell, QM2c at NTS Norfolk, VA. Their ship (now being constructed) will be U.S.S. Mason (DE 529)." January 3, 1944. 80-G-44828. National Archives Identifier:  520611 

175. "Carlton J. Dearborn, S2c [cements a stringer on the fuselage of balsam model of Stuka Dive Bomber at Camp Smalls, U.S. Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, IL. Dearborn teaches sailors to identify enemy and Allied aircraft]." March 13, 1943. 80-G-294792. National Archives Identifier: 520667 

176. "Steward's Mates School at NAS Seattle, WA. Marching under the direction of Chief Steward Robert Nargrove." April 1944. 80-G-233266. National Archives Identifier:  520647 

177. "A platoon of Negro `boot recruits' listen to their drill instructor [Sgt. Gilbert Hubert Johnson] whose job is to turn them into finished Marines." Montford Point Camp, NC. Ca. April 1943. 208-NP-10FF-1. National Archives Identifier:  535866   

178. "Judo instruction is one of the high spots in the life of the latest addition to the Leatherneck Marines here. An instructor shows a recruit how to make the enemy's bayonet useless. Cpl. Arvin Lou Ghazlo, USMC, giving judo instructions to Pvt. Ernest C. Jones, USMCR." Montford Point Camp, NC. April 1943. 127-N-5334. National Archives Identifier:  532513

179. "A trio of recruits in training to take their places as fighting Leathernecks in the U.S. Marine Corps, run the rugged obstacle course at Camp Lejeune, NC [Montford Point Camp]. The Marine recruits have shown such excellent results in their aptitudes and leadership capacities that an expanded Navy recruiting program is now underway." April 1943. Pat Terry. 127-N-5335. National Archives Identifier: 532514 

180. Two recruits in a light tank during training in mechanized warfare at Montford Point Camp, NC. April 1943. Pat Terry. 127-N-5320-B. National Archives Identifier:  532512 

181. "Under the direction of Swimming Instructor, Marine Pfc. Paul Tolliver..., Leathernecks in training at Montford Point Camp learn the correct movements for the breaststroke." November 1944. Anderson. 127-GC-404-8276. National Archives Identifier:  532367   

182. "Marines receiving instruction in the Demolition Course at Montford Point Camp [NC], during intensive combat training in preparation for action in the Pacific." February 1945. Sgt. L. A. Wilson. 127-N-9019. National Archives Identifier:  532516   

183. "American Negro nurses, commissioned second lieutenants in the U.S. Army Nurses Corps, limber up their muscles in an early-morning workout during an advanced training course at a camp in Australia. The nurses, who already had extensive training in the U.S., will be assigned to Allied hospitals in advanced sectors of the southwest Pacific theater." February 1944. 208-N-2296   (african_americans_wwii_183.jpg)

184. "WAAC Capt. Charity Adams of Columbia, NC, who was commissioned from the first officer candidate class, and the first of her group to receive a commission, drills her company on the drill ground at the first WAAC Training Center, Fort Des Moines, Iowa." May 1943. 111-SC-238651. National Archives Identifier: 531334 

185. "A Negro WAAC [Mrs. Mary K. Adair] takes an examination for Officers' Candidate School, Fort McPherson, Georgia." June 20, 1942. 111-SC-25635. National Archives Identifier:  531337 

186. "U.S. Army nurses are taking notes during a lecture in [a] classroom at the Army Nurse Training Center in England." September 5, 1944. Klosterman. 111-SC-37076. National Archives Identifier:  531411 


Rest and Relaxation

187. "A contingent of 15 nurses,...arrive in the southwest Pacific area, received their first batch of home mail at their station." 268th Station Hospital, Australia. Three of the nurses are Lts. Prudence L. Burns, Inez Holmes, and Birdie E. Brown. November 29, 1943. Sgt. Dick D. Williams. 111-SC-370740. National Archives Identifier: 531410   

188. "The Bowling Alleys at Fort McClellan, Alabama, are well patronized by members of WAC Det #2 in their off-duty hours. M/Sgt Helen Starr...is ready to send a ball on its way down the alley." January 27, 1944. 111-SC-18369. National Archives Identifier: 531173   

189. "WAAC officers go shopping...soon after their arrival at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, these two officers [3d Officers Vera Harrison and Irma J. Cayton] started shopping for lamps and other accessories needed in their recreation hall." 1942. Oster. 111-SC-16248. National Archives Identifier: 531154 

190. "Send `em V-Mail and keep `em smiling." N.d. 208-NP-8AAA-1. National Archives Identifier: 535851   

191. "... U.S. Coast Guardsmen make use of a telephone booth in Scotland. They are on liberty from their ship, a Coast Guard combat cutter engaged in convoy escort duty." From left to right: Officers' Cook Second Class Joseph Andy, Officers' Steward First Class Casiano Aquino, Gunner's Mate Second Class Vincent G. Igoe, Electrician's Mate Second Class George Trigony, Radioman Third Class Carlton Lee, and Officers' Steward Second Class Daniel Riley. N.d. 26-G-1550. National Archives Identifier:  513167 

192. "Relaxing aboard a U.S. Coast Guard-manned transport headed for Pacific invasion areas, three Negro Marines catch a smoke. Tomorrow, it will be the smoke of battle." N.d. 26-G-321. National Archives Identifier: 513196   

193. "Aboard a U.S. Coast Guard-manned transport somewhere in the Pacific, a group of Negro Marines presents a cheerful front." N.d. 26-G-322. National Archives Identifier: 513198   

194. "Negro boxing champions at Great Lakes, IL." U.S. Naval Training Station. March 3, 1943. 80-G-29485. (african_americans_wwii_194.jpg)

195. "However pressing his duties STM2/c James Lee Frazer always finds time to read a few chapters from his Bible each day. In this study he is especially intense about his devotional routine...it was the night before the opening strike of a raid on Manila Bay." January 9, 1945. 80-G-30524. National Archives Identifier:   520675   

196. "34th CB's trading with natives from Malaita. Left to right: native; Percy J. Hope, MS2c; Lilton T. Walker, S1c; two natives; Jack Kelsen, SC1c." Halavo, Florida Island, Solomon Islands. September 23, 1943. 80-G-8916. National Archives Identifier:  520630 

197. "Somewhere in England one of the hottest bands in the European Theater of Operations belongs to a Special United States Naval Construction Battalion..." The band leader and trumpeter is Coxswain Thomas J. Lindsey (left), and the drummer is S1c. Edward A. Grant. December 14, 1944. 208-NP-8T-2. National Archives Identifier: 535858 

198. "... sailors in their bunkroom aboard the U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CV-14) on eve of the Battle of Manila, PI. Thomas L. Crenshaw (STM1/c) looks at a picture of his three children, while a bunkmate writes a letter home." November 4, 1944. Lt. Wayne Miller. 80-G-46951. National Archives Identifier: 520867 

199. Navy baseball team--Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. September 1944. 80-G-12396. National Archives Identifier: 520633 

200. "Negro troops, moving over the Atlantic on a Coast Guard manned troop transport, sprawl on a hatch to `bat the breeze' and talk of home. They are on their way to the fighting lines in Europe..." N.d. 208-NP-3WW-22. National Archives Identifier:   535816 

201. Soldiers listening to a jukebox. N.d. 208-LU-35CC-4. National Archives Identifier:  535751 

202. "Rickshaws are almost as common in India as they are in China. Some of the...troops are on their way to see `Tarzan's New York Adventure'--in India..." July 1943. 208-AA-45HH-1. National Archives Identifier: 535539 

203. "After a hard day's work a shower and shave are in order. Sgt. Wm. H. Whaley...soaps himself before taking a cold shower while Sgt. Delos Oliver...lathers up..." Ca. July 1943. 208-AA-45BB-1. National Archives Identifier:  535538 

204. "Negro GIs and American Red Cross workers, college graduates, join in some musical fun at Assam, India..." Left to right: Cpl. Robert Barttow, Pvt. James Montgomery, Jeannette C. Dorsey, and Willie Lee Johnson. August 23, 1944. Grigg. 111-SC-329741. National Archives Identifier:  531351 

205. "Chaplain William T. Green reads the benediction at the marriage ceremony of Pfc. Florence A. Collins, a WAC of the 6888th Postal Directory Battalion, to Cpl. William A. Johnson of the 1696th Labor Supervision Co. This is the first Negro marriage to be performed in the European Theater of Operations." Rouen, France. August 19, 1945. T/5 L. Kaufman. 111-SC-210939.  National Archives Identifier:  531314 

206. "Sgt. Franklin Williams, home on leave from army duty, with his best girl Ellen Hardin, splitting a soda. They met at Douglas High School." Baltimore, MD. May 1942. Arthur Rothstein. 208-NP-6LL-11.  National Archives Identifier:  535838 

207. "Christmas Dance at Negro Service Club #3. The dance was sponsored by the 1323rd Engineers. They had their own orchestra. Camp Swift, Texas." December 23, 1943. Pvt. Greene. 111-SC-188341. National Archives Identifier:  531180 

208. "For his 19th birthday, this sergeant's buddies baked him a cake and decorated it with the tools of his trade. P.S.: He didn't light the candles." Ca. May 1942. Fred Morgan. 111-SC-150930-B. National Archives Identifier: 531143 

209. "Long, dangerous missions over enemy territory and inclement weather often necessitate fighter planes returning to their bases with gas in their tanks for little over 3 minutes flying time. Pilots of a 15th AAF squadron decided to form a club to be known as `The Three Minute Egg Club', with membership limited to those unfortunates who landed within the narrow margin." Left to right: 1st Lts. Clarence A. Dart and Wilson D. Eagelson and 2d Lt. William N. Olsbrook. N.d. 208-AA-47E-1. National Archives Identifier: 535545 

210. "Negro [air cadet] shown on a cot in his barracks studying as he gazes fondly at his collection of photos of his girl friends." N.d. 208-NP-5QQ-9. National Archives Identifier: 535832 

211. "Pvt. Lloyd A. Taylor, 21-year-old transportation dispatcher at Mitchel Field, New York City, who knows Latin, Greek, Spanish, French, German, and Japanese, studies a book on Chinese. A former medical student at Temple University, he passes two hours a day studying languages as a hobby." N.d. 208-NS-3753-2. National Archives Identifier: 535873 


Personalities

212. "Dorothy Donegan, pianist, and Camp Robert Smalls swing band at NTS, Great Lakes." June 16, 1943. 80-G-29490. National Archives Identifier:  520669

213. "Lester Granger, while inspecting facilities for Negro personnel at NAS, San Diego, CA, stops to chat with Rofes Herring, S1/c; Walter Calvert, S2/c; and Nollie H. Million, civilian employe[e], as Lt. Roper (left) stands by." June 20, 1945. 80-G-33398. National Archives Identifier: 520687 

214. "Marian Anderson, world's greatest contralto, entertains a group of overseas veterans and WACs on [the] stage of the San Antonio Municipal Auditorium..." April 11, 1945. 208-PU-5A-3. National Archives Identifier:   535928 

215. "Bishop John Andrew Gregg, Leader of [the] African Methodist Church in North Central United States and Envoy of President Roosevelt, fondles a pet koala bear adopted by Pfc. Sammy Hurt... Around the Bishop are members of the [630th] Ordnance Company." July 21, 1943. 111-SC-180917. National Archives Identifier: 531169 

216. "Hattie McDaniel (center), Chairman of the Negro Division of the Hollywood Victory Committee, takes time off from rehearsals...to lead a caravan of entertainers and hostesses to Minter Field,...for a vaudeville performance and dance for soldiers stationed there. The young lady to the right of Miss McDaniel is Miss Virginia Paris, noted concert singer." N.d. 208-NS-4264-5.National Archives Identifier:  535875   

217. "Brig. Gen. Benjamin O. Davis watches a Signal Corps crew erecting poles, somewhere in France." August 8, 1944. Cunningham. 111-SC-192258-S. National Archives Identifier:  531201

218. "Capt. Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr., of Washington, D.C., climbing into an Advanced Trainer. Tuskegee, Alabama." January 1942. Wilfred Morgan. 208-FS-872-3. National Archives Identifier: 535718

219. "Lena Horne conserves fuel (gas)." N.d. Randt Studios, Inc. 208-NP-4CCC-1.National Archives Identifier: 535820 

220."War Correspondent Ted Stanford of The Pittsburgh Courier, a weekly, interviews 1st Sgt. Morris O. Harris,...a tankman of the 784th Tank Battalion operating with the Ninth Army." March 28, 1945. 208-AA-32P-14. National Archives Identifier: 535535 

221. "After receiving first aid treatment in practice raid in Washington, DC, air-raid `victim' is removed to hospital by a Medical Corps of the Office of Civilian Defense." The physician is Dr. Charles Drew. N.d. Roger Smith. 208-NP-4W-2. National Archives Identifier: 535826 

222. "First of the famous Mills Brothers quartet to enter Army service, Pvt. Harry Mills stops at the jukebox in the Reception Center PX to hear how he sounds on one of the latest Mills Brothers recordings. Left to right: S/Sgt. Arthur Whyte, Sgt. Robert Seymour, Pfc. George Blair, and Pvt. Harry Mills. Fort Custer, MI." 1943 111-SC-187426. National Archives Identifier:  531178 

223. "Miss Josephine Baker, popular stage performer, sings the National Anthem as the finale to the show held in the Municipal Theater, Oran, Algeria, N. Africa. The band is directed by T/Sgt. Frank W. Weiss." May 17, 1943. 111-SC-175237. National Archives Identifier: 531160 

224. [Mary McLeod Bethune], "Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt and others at the opening of Midway Hall, one of two residence halls built by the Public Buildings Administration of FWA for Negro government girls..." Washington, DC. May 1943. James Stephen Wright. 162-PBA-10-F-561. National Archives Identifier:  533032 

225. "Sgt. Romare Bearden, noted young Negro artist whose paintings have been exhibited in galleries and museums in several metropolitan centers...is shown (right) discussing one of his paintings, `Cotton Workers,' with Pvt. Charles H. Alston, his first art teacher and cousin... Both Bearden and Alston are members of the 372nd Infantry Regiment stationed in New York City." Ca. February 1944. Roger Smith. 208-NP-6W-1. National Archives Identifier:  535841 

226. Theodore R. Poston, head of the Negro Press Section, Office of War Information. N.d. 208-NP-4MMM-1. National Archives Identifier:  535824 

227. "Mr. Truman K. Gibson, Jr., Civilian Aide to the Secretary of War, pictured at press conference Monday, April 9, following his return from Mediterranean and European Theaters of Operations." April 9, 1945. 208-PU-77F-5. National Archives Identifier: 535930 

228. "After inspecting a regiment of Negro artillerymen during a visit to Hawaii, Under Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson congratulates Col. Chauncey M. Hooper,...commander of the unit, while Lt. Gen. Robert C. Richardson, Jr. and Col. Harry B. Reubel,...watch with approval." August 1943. 107-T-7-2. National Archives Identifier: 524377 

229. Judge William H. Hastie, dean of the Howard University Law School, Civilian Aide to the Secretary of War. Ca. 1941. 208-NP-6BBB-1. National Archives Identifier:  535835 

230. "Earl `Father' [Fatha] Hines, a great swing musician, is shown with Pvt. Charles Carpenter, former manager of the Hines orchestra..." Camp Lee, VA. N.d. 208-NP-5XX-9. National Archives Identifier:  535834 

231. "Surrounded by recruits, Marva Louis, wife of champion Joe [Louis], takes time out from a tour of nightclubs to entertain men in the Negro regiments at the U.S. Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, IL. Some 2,000 bluejackets gathered in a regimental drill hall to hear her songs." N.d. 208-NP-8J-2. National Archives Identifier: 535855 

232. "World Heavyweight champ Joe Louis (Barrow) sews on the stripes of a technical sergeant--to which he has been promoted..." April 10, 1945. 208-PU-120V-12. National Archives Identifier: 535937 

233. "Paul Robeson, world famous Negro baritone, leading Moore Shipyard [Oakland, CA] workers in singing the Star Spangled Banner, here at their lunch hour recently, after he told them: `This is a serious job--winning this war against fascists. We have to be together.' Robeson himself was a shipyard worker in World War I." September 1942. Wide World Photos. 208-NS-3848-2. National Archives Identifier:  535874

234. "Admiral C. W. Nimitz, CinCPac, pins Navy Cross on Doris Miller, at ceremony on board warship in Pearl Harbor, T. H." May 27, 1942. 208-NP-8PP-2. National Archives Identifier:  535857   


The Homefront

235. "Brig. Gen. Robert N. Young, Commanding General of the Military District of Washington, assists Melba Rose, aged 2, daughter of Mrs. Rosie L. Madison,...in viewing the Silver Star posthumously awarded her father 1st Lt. John W. Madison, of the 92nd Infantry Division, who was killed in action in Italy..." N.d. 208-AA-139B-1. National Archives Identifier:  535559 

236. "The National Council of Negro Women entertained British war workers representing labor unions and American labor women just returned from an eight-week tour of Great Britain..." April 21, 1945. 208-NP-3AA-1. National Archives Identifier: 535812 

237. "LSM Vessel No. 325 launching party." Mrs. Lula Martin, Chicago, IL, second from the left, was the sponsor. August 25, 1944. 19-N-7058. National Archives Identifier: 513046 

238. "To learn how to shop with point stamps, these youngsters in a Fairfax County, Virginia, grade school have set up a play store, complete with point value table and informational material on point rationing." N.d. Roger Smith. 208-NP-4FFF-1. National Archives Identifier:  535821   

239. "Air raid wardens at a sector meeting in Washington, DC, discuss the zones they control during a practice air raid." N.d. Roger Smith. 208-NP-4W-3.  National Archives Identifier: 535827   

240. "V" home campaign, Washington, DC. October 1942. 171-OCD-140. National Archives Identifier: 533827

241. "Cardozo High School, Washington, DC." High School Victory Corps. June 1943. Bonn. 12-E-41-398. National Archives Identifier: 512754 

242. "William R. Carter, government pharmacist for 40 years... As [a] laboratory aide in the Food and Drug Administration of the Federal Security Agency, he is entrusted with the job of preparing media for testing the sterility of bandage material." N.d. Roger Smith. 208-NP-4JJ-1. National Archives Identifier: 535823 

243. "Making model airplanes for U.S. Navy at the Armstrong Technical High School. Washington, DC." March 1942. Marjory Collins. 208-NP-3KK-1. National Archives Identifier: 535814 

244. "... the public school children of the South-Central District of Chicago purchased $263,148. 83 in war bonds and stamps...a huge check representing enough money for 125 jeeps, two pursuit planes and motorcycle was presented to Maj. C. Udell Turpin of the Illinois War Bond Sales staff." N.d. 208-NP-3MM-1. National Archives Identifier: 535815 

245. "This highly experienced Negro draftsman is one of many skilled technical Negro workers employed in speeding war production at a large eastern arsenal." May 1942. Howard Liberman. 208-NP-2HH-1. National Archives Identifier: 535806 

246. "Cortez W. Peters, World's Champion Portable Typist, is shown with ten late model standard-size typewriters which he turned over to the Government to aid the drive for 600,000 machines for the Army and Navy." November 1942. Danor. 208-NP-1V-1. National Archives Identifier: 535804 

247. "Pin-up girls at NAS Seattle, Spring Formal Dance. Left to right: Jeanne McIver, Harriet Berry, Muriel Alberti, Nancy Grant, Maleina Bagley, and Matti Ethridge." April 10, 1944. 80-G-23326. National Archives Identifier: 520646

248. "Final assembly of the pilot's compartment is being made by these Negro workers in a large eastern aircraft factory. These youths went directly from a war training course to their jobs in this plant." May 1942. Howard Liberman 208-NP-2VV-2. National Archives Identifier:  535810 

249. "Insignia for military police are being turned out in an eastern quartermaster corps depot where this young worker has obtained war production employment." May 1942. Howard Liberman. 208-NP-2HHH-1.National Archives Identifier:  535807 

250. "Under the direction of Cecil M. Coles, NYA foreman, Miss Juanita E. Gray learns to operate a lathe machine at the Washington, DC, NYA War Production and Training Center. This former domestic worker is one of hundreds of Negro women trained at this center." N.d. Roger Smith. 208-NP-2QQQQ-1. National Archives Identifier:  535809 

251. "The Negro janitors of the plant maintenance department in North America's Kansas City factory in V-formation as they start out on their daily tasks." February 4, 1942. Carl Conley. 208-NP-1KK-1.National Archives Identifier: 535801 

252. "... Welders Alivia Scott, Hattie Carpenter, and Flossie Burtos await an opportunity to weld their first piece of steel on the ship [SS George Washington Carver]." Kaiser Shipyards, Richmond, CA. Ca. 1943. E.F. Joseph. 208-NP-1HHH-5. National Archives Identifier: 535800

253. "Bertha Stallworth, age 21, shown inspecting end of 40mm artillery cartridge case at Frankford Arsenal." N.d. 208-NP-1WW-1. National Archives Identifier: 535805

254. "Miss Clara Camille Carroll..., contributes her bit to the war effort in her daily work. She is one of the thousands of Negro girls now filling clerical positions in the Nation's Capital." January 15, 1943. Roger Smith. 208-NP-3F-3. National Archives Identifier:  535813 

255. "... women employed at Savannah Quartermaster Depot, Savannah, Georgia." Ca. 1943. 86-WWT-67-6. National Archives Identifier:  522887 

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
, The Tenth Line Crack Archives

V. I. Lenin

Part IV: Tenth Congress of the R.C.P.(B.)


8
Preliminary Draft Resolution Of
The Tenth Congress Of The R.C.P.
On Party Unity

1. The Congress calls the attention of all members of the Party to the fact that the unity and cohesion of the ranks of the Party, the guarantee of complete mutual confidence among Party members and genuine team-work that really embodies the unanimity of will of the vanguard of the proletariat, are particularly essential at the present time, when a number of circumstances are increasing the vacillation among the petty-bourgeois population of the country.

2. Notwithstanding this, even before the general Party discussion on the trade unions, certain signs of factionalism had been apparent in the Party—the formation of groups wlth separate platforms, striving to a certain degree to segregate and create their own group discipline. Such symptoms of factionalism were manifested, for example, at a Party conference in Moscow (November 1920) and at a Party conference in Kharkov,[28] by the so-called Workers’ Opposition group, and partly by the so-called Democratic Centralism group.

All class-conscious workers must clearly realise that factionalism of any kind is harmful and impermissible, for no matter how members of individual groups may desire to safeguard Party unity, factionalism in practice inevitably leads to the weakening of team-work and to intensified and repeated attempts by the enemies of the governing Party, who have wormed their way into it, to widen the cleavage and to use it for counter-revolutionary purposes.

The way the enemies of the proletariat take advantage of every deviation from a thoroughly consistent commu- nist line was perhaps most strikingly shown in the case of the Kronstadt mutiny, when the bourgeois counter-revolutionaries and whiteguards in all countries of the world immediately expressed their readiness to accept the slogans of the Soviet system, if only they might thereby secure the overthrow of the dictatorship of the proletariat in Russia, and when the Socialist-Revolutionaries and the bourgeois counter-revolutionaries in general resorted in Kronstadt to slogans calling for an insurrection against the Soviet Government of Russia ostensibly in the interest of the Soviet power. These facts fully prove that the whiteguards strive, and are able, to disguise themselves as Communists, and even as the most Left-wing Communists, solely for the purpose of weakening and destroying the bulwark of the proletarian revolution in Russia. Menshevik leaflets distributed in Petrograd on the eve of the Kronstadt mutiny likewise show how the Mensheviks took advantage of the disagreements and certain rudiments of factionalism in the Russian Communist Party actually in order to egg on and support the Kronstadt mutineers, the Socialist-Revolutionaries and the whiteguards, while claiming to be opponents of mutiny and supporters of the Soviet power, only with supposedly slight modifications.

3. In this question, propaganda should consist, on the one hand, in a comprehensive explanation of the harmfulness and danger of factionalism from the standpoint of Party unity and of achieving unanimity of will among the vanguard of the proletariat as the fundamental condition for the success of the dictatorship of the proletariat; and, on the other hand, in an explanation of the peculiar features of the latest tactical devices of the enemies of the Soviet power. These enemies, having realised the hopelessness of counter-revolution under an openly whiteguard flag, are now doing their utmost to utilise the disagreements within the Russian Communist Party and to further the counter-revolution in one way or another by transferring power to a political group which is outwardly closest to recognition of the Soviet power.

Propaganda must also teach the lessons of preceding revolutions, in which the counter-revolution made a point of supporting the opposition to the extreme revolutionary party which stood closest to the latter, in order to undermine and overthrow the revolutionary dictatorship and thus pave the way for the subsequent complete victory of the counter-revolution, of the capitalists and landowners.

4. In the practical struggle against factionalism, every organisation of the Party must take strict measures to prevent all factional actions. Criticism of the Party’s shortcomings, which is absolutely necessary, must be conducted in such a way that every practical proposal shall be submitted immediately, without any delay, in the most precise form possible, for consideration and decision to the leading local and central bodies of the Party. Moreover, every critic must see to it that the form of his criticism takes account of the position of the Party, surrounded as it is by a ring of enemies, and that the content of his criticism is such that, by directly participating in Soviet and Party work, he can test the rectification of the errors of the Party or of individual Party members in practice. Analyses of the Party’s general line, estimates of its practical experience, check-ups of the fulfilment of its decisions, studies of methods of rectifying errors, etc., must under no circumstances be submitted for preliminary discussion to groups formed on the basis of “platforms”, etc., but must in all cases be submitted for discussion directly to all the members of the Party. For this purpose, the Congress orders a more regular publication of Diskussionny Listok[29] and special symposiums to promote unceasing efforts to ensure that criticism shall be concentrated on essentials and shall not assume a form capable of assisting the class enemies of the proletariat.

5. Rejecting in principle the deviation towards syndicalism and anarchism, which is examined in a special resolution,[30] and instructing the Central Committee to secure the complete elimination of all factionalism, the Congress at the same time declares that every practical proposal concerning questions to which the so-called Workers’ Opposition group, for example, has devoted special attention, such as purging the Party of non-proletarian and unreliable elements, combating bureaucratic practices, developing democracy and workers’ initiative, etc., must be examined with the greatest care and tested in practice. The Party must know that we have not taken all the necessary measures in regard to these questions because of various obstacles, but that, while ruthlessly rejecting impractical and factional pseudo-criticism, the Party will unceasingly continue—trying out new methods—to fight with all the means at its disposal against the evils of bureaucracy, for the extension of democracy and initiative, for detecting, exposing and expelling from the Party elements that have wormed their way into its ranks, etc.

6. The Congress, therefore, hereby declares dissolved and orders the immediate dissolution of all groups without exception formed on the basis of one platform or another (such as the Workers’ Opposition group, the Democratic Centralism group, etc.). Non-observance of this decision of the Congress shall entail unconditional and instant expulsion from the Party.

7. In order to ensure strict discipline within the Party and in all Soviet work and to secure the maximum unanimity in eliminating all factionalism, the Congress authorises the Central Committee, in cases of breach of discipline or of a revival or toleration of factionalism, to apply all Party penalties, including expulsion, and in regard to members of the Central Committee, reduction to the status of alternate members and, as an extreme measure, expulsion from the Party. A necessary condition for the application of such an extreme measure to members of the Central Committee, alternate members of the Central Committee and members of thc Control Commission is the convocation of a Plenary Meeting of the Central Committee, to which all alternate members of the Central Committee and all members of the Control Commission shall be invited. If such a general assembly of the most responsible leaders of the Party deems it necessary by a two-thirds majority to reduce a member of the Central Committee to the status of alternate member, or to expel him from the Party, this measure shall be put into effect immediately.[31]

Published according to the manuscript

9
Preliminary Draft Resolution Of
The Tenth Congress Of The R.C.P.
On The Syndicalist And Anarchist Deviation In Our Party

1. A syndicalist and anarchist deviation has been definitely revealed in our Party in the past few months. It calls for the most resolute measures of ideological struggle and also for purging the Party and restoring its health.

2. The said deviation is due partly to the influx into the Party of former Mensheviks, and also of workers and peasants who have not yet fully assimilated the communist world outlook. Mainly, however, this deviation is due to the influence exercised upon the proletariat and on the Russian Communist Party by the petty-bourgeois element, which is exceptionally strong in our country, and which inavitably engenders vacillation towards anarchism, particularly at a time when the condition of the masses has greatly deteriorated as a consequence of the crop failure and the devastating effects of war, and when the demobilisation of the army numbering millions sets loose hundreds and hundreds of thousands of peasants and workers unable immediately to find regular means of livelihood.

3. The most theoretically complete and clearly defined expression of this deviation (or : one of the most complete, etc., expressions of this deviation) is the theses and other literary productions of the so-called Workers’ Opposition group. Sufficiently illustrative of this is, for example, the following thesis propounded by this group: “The organisation of the management of the national economy is the function of an All-Russia Congress of Producers organised in industrial unions which shall elect a central body to run the whole of the national economy of the Republic.”

The ideas at the bottom of this and numerous similar statements are radically wrong in theory, and represent a complete break with Marxism and communism, with the practical experience of all semi-proletarian revolutions and of the present proletarian revolution.

First, the concept “producer” combines proletarians with semi-proletarians and small commodity producers, thus radically departing from tbe fundamental concept of the class struggle and from the fundamental demand that a precise distinction be drawn between classes.

Secondly, the bidding for or flirtation with the non-Party masses, which is expressed in the above-quoted thesis, is an equally radical departure from Marxism.

Marxism teaches—and this tenet has not only been formally endorsed by the whole of the Communist International in the decisions of the Second (1920) Congress of the Comintern on the role of the political party of the proletariat, but has also been confirmed in practice by our revolution—that only the political party of the working class, i.e., the Communist Party, is capable of uniting, training and organising a vanguard of the proletariat and of the whole mass of the working people that alone will be capable of withstanding the inevitable petty-bourgeois vacillations of this mass and the inevitable traditions and relapses of narrow craft unionism or craft prejudices among the proletariat, and of guiding all the united activities of the whole of the proletariat, i.e., of leading it politically, and through it, the whole mass of the working peop]e. Without this the dictatorship of the proletariat is impossible.

The wrong understanding of the role of the Communist Party in its relation to the non-Party proletariat, and in the relation of the first and second factors to the whole mass of working people, is a radical theoretical departure from communism and a deviation towards syndicalism and anarchism, and this deviation permeates all the views of the Workers’ Opposition group.

4. The Tenth Congress of the Russian Communist Party declares that it also regards as radically wrong all attempts on the part of the said group and of other persons to defend their fallacious views by referring to Paragraph 5 of the economic section of the Programme of the Russian Com- munist Party, which deals with the role of the trade unions. This paragraph says that “the trade unions should eventually arrive at a de facto concentration in their hands of the whole administration of the whole national economy, as a single economic entity” and that they will “ensure in this way indissoluble ties between the central state administration, the national economy and the broad masses of working people”, “drawing” these masses “into direct economic management”.

This paragraph in the Programme of the Russian Communist Party also says that a prerequisite for the state at which the trade unions “should eventually arrive” is the process whereby they increasingly “divest themselves of the narrow craft-union spirit” and embrace the majority “and eventually all” of the working people.

Lastly, this paragraph in the Programme of the Russian Communist Party emphasises that “on the strength of the laws of the R.S.F.S.R., and established practice, the trade unions participate in all the local and central organs of industrial management”.

Instead of studying the practical experience of participation in administration, and instead of developing this experience further, strictly in conformity with successes achieved and mistakes rectified, the syndicalists and anarchists advance as an immediate slogan “congresses or a congress of producers” “to elect” the organs of economic management. Thus, the leading, educational and organising role of the Party in relation to the trade unions of the proletariat, and of the latter to the semi-petty-bourgeois and even wholly petty-bourgeois masses of working people, is completely evaded and eliminated, and instead of continuing and correcting the practical work of building new forms of economy already begun by the Soviet state, we get petty-bourgeois-anarchist disruption of this work, which can only lead to the triumph of the bourgeois counter-revolution.

5. In addition to the theoretical fallacies and a radically wrong attitude towards the practical experience of economic organisation already begun by the Soviet government, the Congress of the Russian Communist Party discerns in the views of this and similar groups and persons a gross political mistake and a direct political danger to the very existence of the dictatorship of the proletariat.

In a country like Russia, the overwhelming preponderance of the petty-bourgeois element and the devastation, impoverishment, epidemics, crop failures, extreme want and hardship inevitably resulting from the war, engender particularly sharp vacillations in the temper of the petty-bourgeois and semi-proletarian masses. First they incline towards a strengthening of the alliance between these masses and the proletariat, and then towards bourgeois restoration. The experience of all revolutions in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries shows most clearly and convincingly that the only possible result of these vacillations—if the unity, strength and influence of the revolutionary vanguard of the proletariat is weakened in the slightest degree—will be the restoration of the power and property of the capitalists and landowners.

Hence, the views of the Workers’ Opposition and of like minded elements are not only wrong in theory, but are an expression of petty-bourgeois and anarchist wavering in practice, and actually weaken the consistency of the leading line of the Communist Party and help the class enemies of the proletarian revolution.

6. In view of all this, the Congress of the R.C.P., emphatically rejecting the said ideas, as being expressive of a syndicalist and anarchist deviation, deems it necessary:

First, to wage an unswerving and systematic struggle against these ideas;

Secondly, to recognise the propaganda of these ideas as being incompatible with membership of the R.C.P.

Instructing the C.C. of the Party strictly to enforce these decisions, the Congress at the same time points out that special publications, symposiums, etc., can and should provide space for a most comprehensive exchange of opinion between Party members on all the questions herein indicated.

Published according to the manuscript

10
Report On Party Unity and
The Anarcho-Syndicalist Deviation

March 16 [32]

Comrades, I do not think there is any need to say a great deal on this question because the subjects on which an official pronouncement must now be made on behalf of the Party Congress, that is, on behalf of the whole Party, were touched upon in all the questions discussed at the Congress. The resolution “On Unity” largely contains a characterisation of the political situation. You must have all read the printed text of this resolution that has been distributed. Point 7, which introduces an exceptional measure, namely, the right to expel a member from the Central Committee by a two-thirds majority of a general meeting of members of the C.C., alternate members and members of the Central Control Commission, is not for publication. This measure was repeatedly discussed at private conferences at which representatives of all shades expressed their opinions. Let us hope, comrades, that it will not be necessary to apply this point; but it is necessary to have it, in view of the new situation, when we are on the eve of a new and fairly sharp turn, and want to abolish all traces of separatism.

Let me now deal with the resolution on syndicalist and anarchist deviations. It is the question touched upon in point 4 of the Congress agenda. The definition of our attitude to certain trends, or deviations in thinking, is the pivot of the whole resolution. By saying “deviations”, we emphasise that we do not as yet regard them as something that has crystallised and is absolutely and fully defined, but merely as the beginning of a political trend of which the Party must give its appraisal. Point 3 of the resolution on the syndicalist and anarchist deviation, copies of which you all probably have, evidently contains a misprint (judging by the remarks, it has been noticed). It should read: “illustrative of this is, for example, the following thesis of the Workers’ Opposition: ’The organisation of the manage ment of the national economy is the function of an All-Russia Congress of Producers organised in industrial unions which shall elect a central body to run the whole of the national economy of the Republic.’” We have repeatedly discussed this point during the Congress, at restricted conferences as well as at the open general sessions of the Congress. I think we have already made it clear that it is quite impossible to defend this point on the plea that Engels had spoken of an association of producers, because it is quite obvious, and an exact quotation of the appropriate passage will prove, that Engels was referring to a classless communist society. That is something we all take for granted once society is rid of classes, only the producers remain; without any division into workers and peasants. And we know perfectly well from all the works of Marx and Engels that they drew a very clear distinction between the period in which classes still exist and that in which they no longer do. Marx and Engels used to ridicule the idea that classes could disappear before communism, and said that communism alone meant their abolition.[33]

The position is that we are the first to raise the question of abolishing classes in the practical plane, and that two main classes remain in this peasant country—the working class and the peasantry. Alongside of them, however, are whole groups left over from capitalism.

Our Programme definitely says that we are taking the first steps and shall have a number of transitional stages But in the practical work of Soviet administration and in the whole history of the revolution we have constantly had graphic illustrations of the fact that it is wrong to give theoretical definitions of the kind the opposition has given in this case. We know perfectly well that classes have remained in our country and will remain for a long time to come; and that in a country with a predominantly peasant population they are bound to remain for many, many years. It will take us at least ten years to organise large-scale industry to produce a reserve and secure control of agriculture. This is the shortest period even if the technical conditions are exceptionally favourable. But we know that our conditions are terribly unfavourable. We have a plan for building up Russia on the basis of modern large-scale industry: it is the electrification plan drawn up by our scientists. The shortest period provided for in that plan is ten years, and this is based on the assumption that conditions will be something like normal. But we know perfectly well that we do not have such conditions and it goes without saying that ten years is an extremely short period for us. We have reached the very core of the question: the situation is such that classes hostile to the proletariat will remain, so that in practice we cannot now create that which Engels spoke about. There will be a dictatorship of the proletariat. Then will come the classless society.

Marx and Engels sharply challenged those who tended to forget class distinctions and spoke about producers, the people, or working people in general. Anyone who has read Marx and Engels will recall that in all their works they ridicule those who talk about producers, the people, working people in general. There are no working people or workers in general; there are either small proprietors who own the means of production, and whose mentality and habits are capitalistic—and they cannot be anything else—or wage-workers with an altogether different cast of mind, wage-workers in large-scale industry, who stand in antagonistic contradiction to the capitalists and are ranged in struggle against them.

We have approached this question after three years of struggle, with experience in the exercise of the political power of the proletariat, and knowledge of the enormous difficulties existing in the relationships between classes, which are still there, and with remnants of the bourgeoisie filling the cracks and crevices of our social fabric, and holding office in Soviet institutions. In the circumstances the appearance of a platform containing the theses I have read to you is a clear and obvious syndicalist-anarchist deviation. That is no exaggeration: I have carefully weighed my words. A deviation is not yet a full-blown trend. A deviation is something that can be rectified. People have somewhat strayed or are beginning to stray from the path, but can still be put right. That, in my opinion, is what the Russian word uklon means. It emphasises that there is nothing final in it as yet, and that the matter can be easily rectified; it shows a desire to sound a warning and to raise the question on principle in all its scope. If anyone has a better word to express this idea, let us have it, by all means. I hope we shall not start arguing over words. We are essentially examining this thesis as the main one, so as not to go chasing after a mass of similar ideas, of which the Workers’ Opposition group has a great many. We will leave our writers, and the leaders of this trend to go into the matter, for at the end of the resolution we make a point of saying that special publications and symposiums can and should give space to a more comprehensive exchange of opinion between Party members on all the questions indicated. We cannot now afford to put off the question. We are a party fighting in acute difficulties. We must say to ourselves: if our unity is to be more solid, we must condemn a definite deviation. Since it has come to light, it should be brought out and discussed. If a comprehensive discussion is necessary, let us have it, by all means; we have the men to give chapter and verse on every point, and if we find it relevant and necessary, we shall raise this question internationally as well, for you all know and have just heard the delegate of the Communist International say in his report that there is a certain Leftist deviation in the ranks of the international revolutionary working-class movement. The deviation we are discussing is identical with the anarchist deviation of the German Communist Workers’ Party, the fight against which was clearly revealed at the last Congress of the Communist International.[34] Some of the terms used there to qualify it were stronger than “deviation”. You know that this is an international question. That is why it would be wrong to have done with it by saying, “Let’s have no more discussions. Full stop.” But a theoretical discussion is one thing, and the Party’s political line—a political struggle— is another. We are not a debating society. Of course, we are able to publish symposiums and special publications and will continue to do so but our first duty is to carry on the fight against great odds, and that needs unity. If we are to have proposals, like organising an “All-Russia Congress of Producers”, introduced into the political discussion and struggle, we shall be unable to march forward united and in step. That is not the policy we have projected over the next few years. It is a policy that would disrupt the Party’s team-work, for it is wrong not only in theory, but also in its incorrect definition of the relations between classes—the crucial element which was specified in the resolution of the Second Congress of the Communist International,[35] and without which there is no Marxism. The situation today is such that the non-Party element is yielding to the petty-bourgeois vacillations which are inevitable in Russia’s present economic condition. We must remember that in some respects the internal situation presents a greater danger than Denikin and Yudenich; and our unity must not be formal but must go deep down below the surface. If we are to create this unity, a resolution like the one proposed is indispensable.

The next very important thing in my opinion is Point 4 of this resolution, which gives an interpretation of our Programme. It is an authentic interpretation, that is, the author’s interpretation. Its author is the Congress, and that is why it must give its interpretation in order to put a stop to all this wavering, and to the tricks that are some times being played with our Programme, as if what it says about the trade unions is what some people would like it to say. You have heard Comrade Ryazanov’s criticism of the Programme—let us thank the critic for his theoretical researches. You have heard Comrade Shlyapnikov’s criticism. That is something we must not ignore. I think that here, in this resolution, we have exactly what we need just now. We must say on behalf of the Congress, which endorses the Programme and which is the Party’s supreme organ: here is what we understand the Programme to mean. This, I repeat, does not cut short theoretical discussion. Proposals to amend the Programme may be made; no one has suggested that this should be prohibited. We do not think that our Programme is so perfect as not to require any modification whatever; but just now we have no formal proposals, nor have we allocated any time for the examination of this question. If we read the Programme carefully we shall find the following: “The trade unions . . . should eventually arrive at a de facto concentration”, etc. The words, “should eventually arrive at a de facto concentration”, should be underlined. And a few lines above that we read: “On the strength of the laws . . . the trade unions participate in all the local and central organs of industrial management.” We know that it took decades to build up capitalist industry, with the assistance of all the advanced countries of the world. Are we so childish as to think that we can complete this process so quickly at this time of dire distress and impoverishment, in a country with a mass of peasants, with workers in a minority, and a proletarian vanguard bleeding and in a state of prostration? We have not even laid the main foundation, we have only begun to give an experimental definition of industrial management with the participation of the trade unions. We know that want is the principal obstacle. It is not true to say that we are not enlisting the masses; on the contrary, we give sincere support to anyone among the mass of workers with the least sign of talent, or ability. All we need is for the conditions to ease off ever so little. We need a year or two, at least, of relief from famine. This is an insignificant period of time in terms of history but in our conditions it is a long one. A year or two of relief from famine, with regular supplies of fuel to keep the factories running, and we shall receive a hundred times more assistance from the working class, and far more talent will arise from its ranks than we now have. No one has or can have any doubts about this. The assistance is not forthcoming at present, but not because we do not want it. In fact, we are doing all we can to get it. No one can say that the government, the trade unions, or the Party’s Central Committee have missed a single opportunity to do so. But we know that the want in the country is desperate, that there is hunger and poverty everywhere, and that this very often leads to passivity. Let us not be afraid to call a spade a spade: it is these calamities and evils that are hindering the rise of mass energy. In such a situation, when the statistics tell us that 60 per cent of the members of management boards are workers, it is quite impossible to try to interpret the words in the Programme—“The trade union . . . should eventually arrive at a de facto concentration”, etc.—à la Shlyapnikov.

An authentic interpretation of the Programme will enable us to combine the necessary tactical solidarity and unity with the necessary freedom of discussion, and this is emphasised at the end of the resolution. What does it say in essence? Point 6 reads:

“In view of all this, the Congress of the R.C.P., emphatically rejecting the said ideas, as being expressive of a syndicalist and anarchist deviation, deems it necessary, first, to wage an unswerving and systematic struggle against these ideas; secondly, to recognise the propaganda of these ideas as being incompatible with membership of the R.C.P.

“Instructing the C.C. of the Party strictly to enforce these decisions, the Congress at the same time points out that special publications, symposiums, etc., can and should provide space for a most comprehensive exchange of opinion between Party members on all the questions herein indicated.”

Do you not see—you all who are agitators and propagandists in one way or another—the difference between the propaganda of ideas within political parties engaged in struggle, and the exchange of opinion in special publications and symposiums? I am sure that everyone who takes the trouble to understand this resolution will see the difference. And we hope that the representatives of this deviation whom we-are taking into the Central Committee will treat the decisions of the Party Congress as every class-conscious disciplined Party member does. We hope that with their assistance we, in the Central Committee, shall look into this matter, without creating a special situation. We shall investigate and decide what it is that is going on in the Party—whether it is the propaganda of ideas within a political party engaged in struggle, or the exchange of opinion in special publications and symposiums. There is the opportunity for anyone interested in a meticulous study of quotations from Engels. We have theoreticians who can always give the Party useful advice. That is necessary. We shall publish two or three big collections—that is useful and absolutely necessary. But is this anything like the propaganda of ideas, or a conflict of platforms? How can these two things be confused? They will not be confused by anyone who desires to understand our political situation.

Do not hinder our political work, especially in a difficult situation, but go on with your scientific research. We shall be very happy to see Comrade Shlyapnikov supplement his recent book on his experiences in the underground revolutionary struggle with a second volume written in his spare time over the next few months and analysing the concept of “producer”. But the present resolution will serve as our landmark. We opened the widest and freest discussion. The platform of the Workers’ Opposition was published in the central organ of the Party in 250,000 copies. We have weighed it up from all sides, we have elected delegates on its basis, and finally we have convened this Congress, which, summing up the political discussion, says: “The deviation has come to light, we shall not play hide-and-seek, but shall say openly: a deviation is a deviation and must be straightened out. We shall straighten it out, and the discussion will be a theoretical one.”

That is why I renew and support the proposal that we adopt both these resolutions, consolidate the unity of the Party, and give a correct definition to what should be dealt with by Party meetings, and what individuals—Marxists, Communists who want to help the Party by looking into theoretical questions—are free to study in their spare time. (Applause.)

11
Summing-Up Speech On Party Unity and
The Anarcho-Syndicalist Deviation

March 16

Comrades, we have heard some incredibly harsh expressions here, and the harshest, I think, was the accusation that our resolution is slanderous. But some harsh expressions tend to expose themselves. You have the resolution. You know that we took two representatives of the Workers’ Opposition into the Central Committee and that we used the term “deviation”. I emphasise the meaning of this term. Neither Shlyapnikov nor Medvedyev proposed any other. The theses we have criticised here have been criticised by the representatives of all shades of opinion. After this, how can one talk of slander? If we had ascribed to someone something which is not true there would have been some sense in this harsh expression. As it is, it is simply a sign of irritation. That is not a serious objection!

I now come to the points that have been mentioned here. It has been stated that the Democratic Centralism group was given unfair treatment. You have followed the development of the agreement between groups and the exchange of opinion on the question of the election to the Central Committee brought up by the representatives of the Democratic Centralism group. You know that ever since the private conference that was attended by the whole of the Workers’ Opposition group and a number of very prominent comrades, representatives of all shades, I, for one, have publicly urged that it would be desirable to have representatives of the Workers’ Opposition and Democratic Centralism groups on the Central Committee. No one opposed this at the conference, which was attended by all the comrades of the Workers’ Opposition and representatives of all shades. It is quite clear that the election of a representative of the Democratic Centralism group as an alternate and not as a full member of the Central Committee was the result of a lengthy exchange of opinion, and an agreement arrived at among the groups. It is captious to regard this as a sign of mistrust in or unfairness to the Democratic Centralism group. We in the Central Committee have done everything to emphasise our desire to be fair. This is a fact that cannot be obliterated. It is cavilling to draw the conclusion that someone has been unfairly treated. Or take the argument of a comrade from the Democratic Centralism group that Point 7 of the resolution was superfluous because the Central Committee already had that right. We propose that Point 7 be withheld from publication because we hope it will not be necessary to apply it; it is an extreme measure. But when the comrade from the Democratic Centralism group says: “The Rules give you this right”,[36] he shows that he does not know the Rules, and is ignorant of the principles of centralism and democratic centralism. No democracy or centralism would ever tolerate a Central Committee elected at a Congress having the right to expel its members. (A voice : “Bypassing the Party.”) Particularly bypassing the Party. The Congress elects the Central Committee, thereby expressing its supreme confidence and vesting leadership in those whom it elects. And our Party has never allowed the Central Committee to have such a right in relation to its members. This is an extreme measure that is being adopted specially, in view of the dangerous situation. A special meeting is called: the Central Committee, plus the alternate members, plus the Control Commission, all having the same right of vote. Our Rules make no provision for such a body or plenum of 47 persons; and never has anything like it been practised. Hence, I repeat that the comrades of the Democratic Centralism group know neither the Rules, nor the principles of centralism or democratic centralism. It is an extreme measure. I hope we shall not have to apply it. It merely shows that the Party will resort to what you have heard about in the event of disagreements which in one aspect verge on a split. We are not children, we have gone through some hard times, we have seen splits and have survived them; we know what a trial they are, and are not afraid of giving the danger its proper name.

Have we had at previous congresses, even amidst the sharpest disagreements, situations which, in one aspect, verged on a split? No, we have not. Do we have such a situation now? Yes, we do. This point has been made repeatedly. Now, I think, these are disagreements we can combat.

It has also been said that unity is not created by such resolutions; that according to the resolution criticism must be expressed only through the medium of the gubernia committee; that lack of confidence has been expressed in the comrades of the Workers’ Opposition and that this has hampered their presence on the Central Committee. But all of this is not true either. I explained from the very outset why we had chosen the word “deviation”. If you don ’t like the word, accept the resolution as a basis and send it up to the Presidium for possible modification. If we find a milder term I would propose that it be substituted for the word “deviation”, and also that other parts be modified. We shall not object to that. We cannot discuss such details here, of course. Hand in the resolution to the Presidium for editing and toning down. It is certainly impossible to couch it in stronger terms—I agree with that. But it is not true to say that the resolution means inciting one section of the Party against another.

I do not know the composition of the Workers’ Opposition group in Samara, I have not been there; but I am sure that if any member of the Central Committee or delegate to the Congress of whatever shade of opinion—except the Workers’ Opposition—were to set out to prove at a meeting of the Samara organisation that there is no incitement in the resolution, but a call for unity and for winning over the majority of the members of the Workers’ Opposition, he would certainly succeed. When people here use the term “incitement” they forget about Point 5 of the resolution on unity, which notes the services of the Workers’ Opposition. Are these not set down alongside each other? On the one hand, there is the “guilty of a deviation”, and on the other, Point 5 says: “The Congress at the same time declares that every practical proposal concerning questions to which the so-called Workers ’ Opposition group, for example, has devoted special attention, such as purging the Party of non-proletarian and unreliable elements, combating bureaucratic practices, developing democracy and workers’ initiative, etc., must be examined with the greatest care”, etc. Is that incitement? It is a recognition of services. We say: On the one hand, in the discussion, you have shown a deviation which is politically dangerous, and even Comrade Medvedyev’s resolution[37] admits this, although his wording is different. And then we go on to say: As for combating bureaucratic practices, we agree that we are not yet doing all that can be done. That is recognition of services and not incitement!

When a comrade from the Workers’ Opposition is taken into the Central Committee, it is an expression of comradely confidence. And after this, anyone attending a meeting not inflamed with factional strife will hear it say that there is no incitement in this, and that it is an expression of comradely confidence. As for the extreme measure, it is a matter for the future: we are not resorting to it now, and are expressing our comradely confidence. If you think that we are wrong in theory, we can issue dozens of special publications on the subject. And if there are any young comrades, in the Samara organisation, for example, who have anything new to say on this question, then let’s have it, Comrades Samarians! We shall publish a few of your articles. Everyone will see the difference between speeches at a Congress and words being bandied outside it. If you examine the precise text of the resolution you will find a theoretical definition of principle, which is not offensive in the least. Alongside of it is recognition of services in combating bureaucratic practices, a request for assistance and, what is more, inclusion of the representatives of this group in the Central Committee, which is the Party’s greatest expression of confidence. Therefore, comrades, I move that both resolutions be adopted, by a roll-call vote, and then sent on to the Presidium for revision and modification of the formulations. As Comrade Shlyapnikov is a member of the Presidium, perhaps he will find a more appropriate substitute for the word “deviation”.

As regards the notices of resignation, I move we adopt the following resolution: “The Congress calls upon all members of the dissolved Workers’ Opposition group to submit to Party discipline, binding them to remain at their posts, and rejects Comrade Shlyapnikov’s and all other resignations.”[38]

12
Remarks On Ryazanov’s Amendment To The
Resolution On Party Unity

March 16[39]

I think that, regrettable as it may be, Comrade Ryazanov’s suggestion is impracticable. We cannot deprive the Party and the members of the Central Committee of the right to appeal to the Party in the event of disagreement on fundamental issues. I cannot imagine how we can do such a thing! The present Congress cannot in any way bind the elections to the next Congress. Supposing we are faced with a question like, say, the conclusion of the Brest peace? Can you guarantee that no such question will arise? No, you cannot. In the circumstances, the elections may have to be based on platforms. (Ryazanov : “On one question?”) Certainly. But your resolution says: No elections according to platforms. I do not think we have the power to prohibit this. If we are united by our resolution on unity, and, of course, the development of the revolution, there will be no repetition of elections according to platforms. The lesson we have learned at this Congress will not be forgotten. But if the circumstances should give rise to fundamental disagreements, can we prohibit them from being brought before the judgement of the whole Party? No, we cannot! This is an excessive desire, which is impracticable, and I move that we reject it.

13
Speech On The Fuel Question

March 16

Allow me to take the floor to refer the fuel question to a commission. The fuel crisis is undoubtedly one of the—if not the—most important issue in all our economic development. But I ask myself: shall we be able to reach a final decision on such an important question on the basis of the report and co-report—the one setting forth the view of the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council, which is to be given by Comrade Rykov, and the other, criticising that policy, Comrade Larin’s standpoint—without referring it to a commission and studying documents which explain the essence of the matter and help to find out whether the whole depends on flaws in the machinery, scandalous practices and crimes, or the weakness of the peasant economy and the peasant horse, without which the supply of firewood is impossible? I ask myself: can we adopt a decision without a commission? And I say that we cannot. It would therefore be much better for us to elect an enlarged commission consisting mostly of comrades from the provinces, who are familiar with the fuel, and specifically the firewood, business, who have more than a book knowledge of it, and have actually had experience in the line. The commission would hear not only the rapporteurs but would summon a number of persons and see that the statements made by the rapporteur and co-rapporteur are documented. It will then report to the Central Committee, which will, on that basis, have to adopt a number of crucial decisions in that sphere. This procedure will yield much more productive and useful results than discussions at the Congress which could make us waste a whole day and eventually lead us up to no further than reference of the question to a commission.

14
Proposal On The Fuel Question

March 16

I move that we instruct the Central Timber Board immediately to confer with delegates to the Congress who have practical experience in the work of fuel and firewood enterprises, with the view of working out right away urgent measures, especially in floating.

15
Speech In Closing The Congress

March 16

Comrades, we have concluded the work of the Party Congress, which has been meeting at an extremely important moment for the fate of our revolution. The Civil War, coming in the wake of so many years of imperialist war, has so torn and dislocated this country, that its revival is taking place in incredibly difficult conditions. Hence, we should not be surprised that there is a resurgence of the elements of disintegration and decay and of petty-bourgeois and anarchistic elements. One of the fundamental conditions for this is the extreme and unprecedented intensification of want and despair that has now gripped tens and hundreds of thousands, and possibly even larger numbers, of people who see no way out of this disastrous situation. But we know, comrades, that this country has had it even worse. Without shutting our eyes to the danger, or entertaining any sort of false optimism, we say frankly to ourselves and our comrades that the danger is great, but we have great trust in the solidarity of the vanguard of the proletariat. We know that no other force but the class conscious proletariat can unite the millions of scattered small farmers, many of whom are suffering incredible hardships; no other force can unite them economically and politically against the exploiters. We are convinced that this force has emerged from the experience of the struggle—the gruelling experience of the revolution—sufficiently steeled to withstand all severe trials and the difficulties that lie ahead.

Comrades, apart from the decisions we have adopted on these lines, there is the exceptionally important decision our Congress has adopted on relations with the peasantry. In it we make a most sober appraisal of the relations between classes, and are not afraid openly.to admit that this is a most difficult task, namely, that of establishing proper relations between the proletariat and the predominating peasantry while normal relations are unfeasible. You can call relations normal only when the proletariat has control of large-scale industry and its products and fully satisfies the needs of the peasantry and, providing them with the means of subsistence, so alleviates their condition that there is a tangible and obvious improvement over the capitalist system. That is the only way to create a basis for a normally functioning socialist society. We cannot do thls at present because of the crushing ruin, want, impoverishment and despair. But to help to rid ourselves of this accursed legacy we are reacting in a definite way to the relations established during the disastrous war. We will not conceal the fact that the peasantry have some very deep grounds for dissatisfaction. We shall explain the situation more fully, and tell them that we shall do all we can to improve it and pay more heed to the small proprietor’s living conditions.

We must do everything to alleviate his condition, to give more to the small farmer, and assure him of greater security in private farming. We are not afraid of the anti-communist trend this measure is bound to produce.

Comrades, we have now been working for several years to lay, for the first time in history, the foundations of a socialist society and a proletarian state, and it is in the spirit of sober appraisal of these relations that we have expressed our full readiness to reconsider this policy and even to modify it. I think that the results of our Congress in this respect will be all the more successful because we have been solidly united on this fundamental question from the very outset. There was need for unanimity in the solution of two fundamental questions, and we have had no disagreements on the relations between the vanguard of the proletariat and its mass, and the relations between the proletariat and the peasantry In spite of the very difficult political conditions, we have been more united in our decisions on these points than ever before.

Permit me now to deal with two points, which I ask not to be entered into the minutes. The first is the question of concessions in Baku and Grozny. It was dealt with only in passing at this Congress. I was unable to attend that session, but I have been told that some comrades have their doubts or have been left with a sense of dissatisfaction. I don’t think there are any grounds for this. The Central Committee thrashed out this question of granting concessions in Grozny and Baku. Several special commissions were set up and special reports from the departments concerned were called for. There was some disagreement, several votes were taken, but after the last one not a single member or group in the Central Committee wished to exercise their incontestable right to appeal to the Congress. The new Central Committee will, I think, have full formal and actual right to decide this big question on the strength of a Congress decision. Unless we grant concessions, we cannot hope to obtain the assistance of well-equipped modern capitalist industry. And unless we utilise the latter, we shall be unable to lay a proper foundation for our own large-scale production in such industries as oil, which is of exceptional importance for the whole of the world economy. We have not yet concluded a single concession agreement, but we shall do all we can to do so. Have you read in the newspapers about the opening of the Baku-Tiflis oil pipeline? There will soon be news of a similar pipeline to Batum. This will give us an outlet to the world market. We have to improve our economic position, and the technical equipment of our Republic, and give our workers more food and goods. Everything that helps to ease things in this respect is of tremendous value to us. That is why we are not afraid of leasing parts of Grozny and Baku. By leasing out one-fourth of Grozny and one-fourth of Baku, we shall be able—if we succeed—to raise the rest of them to the modern technical level of advanced capitalism. There is no other way for us to do this at present. Those who know the state of our economy will understand this. But once we have a base, even if it costs us hundreds of millions of gold rubles, we shall do everything to develop the rest.

The second question that I ask not to be published is the Presidium’s special decision concerning the manner of reporting. You know that at this Congress we have repeatedly had to work in an atmosphere of excessive tension and a larger number of delegates were kept away from the sittings of the Congress than has usually been the case. We must, therefore, be more calm and thoughtful in drawing up a plan of how the reports are to be made in the localities, and we must be guided by a definite decision. Let me read you a comrade’s draft of the Presidium’s instructions to the delegates returning home (reads ).[40] I have summed it up, and I think these few lines are sufficient to cause every delegate to ponder over the question and in his report to exercise the necessary caution, taking care not to exaggerate the danger of the situation or allow himself or those around him to panic, whatever the circumstances.

Now that world capitalism has started its incredibly frenzied, hysterical campaign against us, it would be particularly inappropriate for us to panic, and there is no reason to do so. Yesterday, by arrangement with Comrade Chicherin, I received a summary of the news on this question, and I think you will find it instructive. It is a summary of the news on the slander campaign about the situation in Russia. The comrade who made the summary writes: “Never before has the West-European press indulged in such an orgy of lies or engaged in the mass production of fantastic inventions about Soviet Russia as in the last fortnight. Since the beginning of March, the whole of the West-European press has been daily pouring out torrents of fantastic reports about insurrections in Russia; a counter-revolutionary victory; Lenin and Trotsky’s flight to the Crimea; the white flag over the Kremlin; barricades in Petrograd and Moscow and their streets running with blood; hordes of workers converging on Moscow from the hills to overthrow the Soviet government; Budyonny’s defection to the rebels; a counter-revolutionary victory in a number of Russian towns, a succession of names adding up to virtually all the gubernia capitals of Russia. The scope and method of the campaign betray it as a far-reaching plan adopted by all the leading governments. On March 2, the British Foreign Office announced through the Press Association that it regarded these reports as improbable, but immediately thereafter issued its own bulletin about a rising in Petrograd, a bombardment of Petrograd by the Kronstadt fleet, and fighting in the streets of Moscow.

On March 2, all the British newspapers published cabied reports about uprisings in Petrograd and Moscow: Lenin and Trotsky have fled to the Crimea; 14,000 workers in Moscow are demanding a constituent assembly; the Moscow arsenal and the Moscow-Kursk railway station are in the hands of the insurgent workers; in Petrograd, Vasilyevsky Ostrov is entirely in the hands of the insurgents.

Let me quote a few of the radio broadcasts and cables received on the following days: on March 3, Klyshko cabled from London that Reuter had picked up some absurd rumours about a rising in Petrograd and was assiduously circulating them.

March 6. The Berlin correspondent Mayson cables to New York that workers from America are playing an important part in the Petrograd revolution, and that Chicherin has radioed an order to General Hanecki to close the frontier to émigrés from America.

March 6. Zinoviev has fled to Oranienbaum; Red artillery is shelling the working-class quarter in Moscow; Petrograd is beleaguered (cable from Wiegand).

March 7. Klyshko cables that according to reports from Revel, barricades have been erected in the streets of Moscow; the newspapers carry reports from Helsingfors that anti-Bolshevik troops have taken Chernigov.

March 7. Petrograd and Moscow are in the hands of the insurgents; insurrection in Odessa; Semyonov advancing in Siberia at the head of 25,000 Cossacks; a Revolutionary Committee in Petrograd is in control of the fortifications and the fleet (reported by the Poldhu wireless station in England).

Nauen, March 7. The factory quarter in Petrograd is in revolt; an anti-Bolshevik insurrection has broken out in Volhynia.

Paris, March 7. Petrograd in the hands of a Revolutionary Committee; Le Matin[41] quotes reports from London saying the white flag is flying over the Kremlin.

Paris, March 8. The rebels have captured Krasnaya Gorka; Red Army regiments have mutinied in Pskov Gubernia; the Bolsheviks are sending Bashkirs against Petrograd.

March 10. Klyshko cables: the newspapers are asking whether Petrograd has fallen or not. According to reports from Helsingfors three-quarters of Petrograd is in the hands of the insurgents. Trotsky, or according to other reports, Zinoviev is in command of operations and has his headquarters in Tosna, or else in the Peter and Paul Fortress. According to other reports, Brusilov has been appointed Commander-in-Chief. Reports from Riga say that Petrograd, except for the railway stations, was captured on the 9th; the Red Army has retreated to Gatchina; strikers in Petrograd have raised the slogan: “Down with the Soviets and the Communists.” The British War Office states that it is not yet known whether or not the Kronstadt rebels have joined up with the Petrograd rebels but, according to information at its disposal, Zinoviev is in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where he is in command of the Soviet troops.

Of a vast number of fabrications in this period I am taking only a few samples: Saratov has become an in dependent anti-Bolshevik republic (Nauen, March 11). Fierce anti-Communist riots in towns along the Volga (same source). Fighting between Byelorussian detachments and the Red Army in Minsk Gubernia (same source).

Paris, March 15. Le Matin reports that large numbers of Kuban and Don Cossacks are in revolt.

Nauen reported on March 14 that Budyonny’s cavalry has joined up with the rebels near Orel. At various times insurrections were reported in Pskov, Odessa and other towns.

Krasin cabled on March 9 that the Washington correspondent of The Times said the Soviet regime was on its last legs and America was therefore deferring establishment of relations with the border states. Reports at various times quoted American banking circles as saying that in the circumstances trade with Russia would be a gamble.

The New York correspondent of The Daily Chronicle reported as early as March 4 that business circles and the Republican Party in America considered trade relations with Russia at the present time to be a gamble.

This campaign of lies is being undoubtedly conducted not only with an eye to America, but also to the Turkish delegation in London, and the plebiscite in Silesia.

Comrades, the picture is absolutely clear. The world press syndicate—over there they have a free press, which means that 99 per cent of the press is in the pay of the financial magnates, who have command of hundreds of millions of rubles—has launched a world-wide campaign on behalf of the imperialists with the prime object of disrupting the negotiations for a trade agreement with Britain, which Krasin has initiated, and the forthcoming trade agreement with America, which, as I have stated, we have been negotiating here, and reference to which was made at this Congress. This shows that the enemies around us, no longer able to wage their war of intervention, are now pinning their hopes on a rebellion. And the Kronstadt events revealed their connection with the international bourgeoisie. Moreover, we see that what they fear most, from the practical angle of international capital, is the resumption of proper trade relations. But they will fail in their attempts to disrupt them. There are some big businessmen here in Moscow, and they have stopped believing these false rumours. They have told us that a group of citizens in America has used an original method of propaganda in favour of Soviet Russia.

It has collected the diverse press reports about Russia over the past few months—about the flight of Lenin and Trotsky, about Trotsky shooting Lenin, and vice versa—and has published them in a pamphlet. You couldn’t find a better way of popularising the Soviet power. Day after day they collected reports of the assassination of Lenin and Trotsky and showed how many times each had been shot or killed; such reports were repeated month after month. Finally, all these reports were collected in a pamphlet and published. The American bourgeois press has got a bad name for itself. That is the enemy whom two million Russian émigrés, landowners and capitalists, are serving; this is the army of the bourgeoisie confronting us. Let them try to disrupt trade relations and belittle the practical achievements of the Soviet power. We know that they will fail. And the reports of the international press, which controls hundreds of thousands of newspapers and supplies news to the whole world, show once again how we are surrounded by enemies and how much weaker they are as compared with last year. That, comrades, is what we must understand. I think that the majority of the delegates present here have realised just how far we can let our disagreements go. It was naturally impossible to keep within these bounds during the struggle at the Congress. Men who have just emerged from the heat of battle cannot be expected to see these limits all at once. But we must have no doubts in our own mind when we look at our Party as the nucleus of the world revolution, and at the campaign which the world syndicate of states is now waging against us. Let them wage their campaign. We have sized it up, and we have egactly sized up our own disagreements. We know that by closing our ranks at this Congress we shall emerge from our disagreements solidly united, with the Party much stronger and marching with ever greater resolution towards international victories! (Stormy applause.)


Endnotes

[28]The Fifth All-Ukraine Party Conference was held in Kharkov in November 1920. Out of 316 delegates, only 23, or 7 per cent voted for the Workers’ Opposition platform.

[29]Diskussionny Listok (Discussion Bulletin )—a non-periodical publication of the Party Central Committee, issued under a decision of the Ninth All-Russia Conference of the R.C.P.(B.) heldin September 1920. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 509).

Two issues—in January and in February 1921—came out before the Tenth Congress, and it was subsequently issued during discussions and before Party congresses.

[30] The resolution “On the Syndicalist and Anarchist Deviation in Our Party”. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, pp. 530-33).

[31] Under a decision of the Tenth Congress, Point 7 of the resolution, “On Party Unity”, was not published at the time. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 785, item 14). It appeared in the Bulletin of the Thirteenth Party Conference.

[32] Lenin gave a report on Party unity and the anarcho-syndicalist deviation at the final, sixteenth, sitting of the Congress on March 16, 1921. The Workers’ Opposition and the Democratic Centralism groups came out against Lenin’s draft resolutions on these questions. But after Lenin’s summing-up speech, his resolutions were carried by an overwhelming majority.

[33] See Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme; Marx’s letter to J. Weydemeyer of March 5, 1852; and Engels, Anti-Dühring; The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State

[34] An anarchist “Leftist” group broke away from the German Communist Party and in April 1920 formed the so-called Communist Workers’ Party of Germany. The “Leftists” held petty-bourgeois, anarcho-syndicalist views. Their representatives to the Second Congress of the Comintern, Otto RühIe and A. Merges, failed to win any support, and walked out. The party had no support within the working class and later degenerated into an insignificant sectarian group.

[35] Its resolution on the agrarian question adopted on August 4, 1920. See Vtoroi kongress ... (The Second Congress of the Communist International, July-August 1920, Moscow, 1934, pp. 522-31).

[36] The reference is to A. Z. Kamensky’s speech.

[37] On behalf of the Workers’ Opposition, S. P. Medvedyev motioned a resolution to counter Lenin’s draft resolution “On Party Unity”. The former was rejected by a majority of the Tenth Party Congress.

[38] The resolution was adopted, with somc slight changes, by the Tenth Party Congress. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 533).

[39] D. B. Ryazanov motioned an amendment to Lenin’s draft resolution “On Party Unity”. It said: “While condemning all factional activity, the Congress vigorously opposes any election to the Congress by platform.” Desyaty syezd . . . (The Tenth Congress of the R.C.P.(B.), March 1921, Moscow, 1963, p. 539). On Lenin’s motion, the amendment was rejected by the Congress.

[40] The draft instructions of the Presidium of the Tenth Congress to the delegates going to the localities are at the Central Party Archives of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the C.P.S.U. Central Committee.

[41]Le Matin—a French bourgeois daily, published in Paris from 1884. Its last issue appeared in August 1944.


10th RCP Congress Table of Contents
Collected Works Table of Contents
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The Tenth Line Crack Archives

DrugWise

The price of drugs varies between different localities and over time. Prices also tend to fluctuate with fashion (demand) and availability (supply).

The 2016 DrugWise Street Drug Trends Survey (published in January 2017) contacted police forces, drug workers, treatment services, drug expert witnesses and members of the Drug Expert Witness and Valuation Association from around the UK, and compiled the following average prices:

Drug

Average prices (2016)

Herbal cannabis (standard) per qtr oz (From Druglink survey 2012)

£37

Herbal cannabis (high strength) per qtr oz  (From Druglink survey 2012)

£55

Spice

Varies widely. £30-60 in central London,  £20 for 3.5g in Manchester.

Heroin per bag – average bag weight 0.1g

£10

Cocaine per gram

£30-40

Crack per rock

£10-20

Ecstasy per pill

£5-15

MDMA powder/crystal per gram

£40

Amphetamine per gram

£5 upwards

Methamphetamine per gram

£200

Ketamine per gram

£20-30

Diazepam per pill (From Druglink survey 2012)

£0.67

US situation:

What America’s Users Spend on Illegal Drugs, 2006–2016, (2019)
This report updates and extends estimates of the number of users, retail expenditures, and amount consumed from 2006 to 2016 for cocaine (including crack), heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine in the United States, based on a methodology developed by the RAND Corporation for the Office of National Drug Control Policy. The report also includes a discussion of what additional types of data would help quantify the scale of these markets in the future, including the new types of information produced by the legalization of marijuana at the state level | RAND, USA

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