Sims 4 Serial Key Archives

Sims 4 Serial Key Archives

Sims 4 Serial Key Archives

Sims 4 Serial Key Archives

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ATTENTION! SPOILERS AHEAD!!
This article contains information from later episodes of The Magnus Archives, and may contain major spoilers for the setting and plot. Continue at your own risk.


This timeline is a comprehensive list of events, as best as they can be organised. Where events are contradictory, they are noted.

See Timeline/Episodes for a simplified timeline of episodes.

Before Edit

to BC
The Indus Valley Civilization. They create burial pits full of burned bones and ash; skulls with markings, as if the eyes were removed; and others that seemed buried alive (MAG ).
ca to  BC
The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. A pyramid is built to contain an immortal mummy (MAG 64).
ca BC
The poem Lugal-e is written (real life). It describes the Sumerian demon Asag (MAG 12, MAG and MAG ).
The Serapeum of Alexandria is torched by Those Who Sing the Night (MAG 53).
Ulrich II dies and is succeeded by Eberhard I. A coin, with the letters "JW" on the front and an image of a man with long flowing hair and the number "," the other side with the words "Für die Stille" ("for the silence") on it, was minted (MAG 23).
ca
Johann Von Württemberg's tomb became touched by the beholding. (MAG 23)
During the s
The entities that would one day become Breekon & Hope spread the Black Death wherever they travel (MAG ).
Unknown date between
Simon Fairchild is an apprentice to the painter Tintoretto. He becomes fascinated with the skies he paints and is claimed by The Vast (MAG ).
Christopher is dragged through the streets of Norwich by a horse, presumably after finding the book that would later detail his demise (MAG 70).

Edit

John Flamsteed spies on Edmund Halley. Halley meets up with people with black empty eyes. They kneel and worship around a dark pool (MAG ).
2nd May - John Flamsteed drowns Edmund Halley in a mysterious dark pool in the woods (MAG ).
4th May - John Flamsteed is surprised to see Edmund Halley alive. Halley thanks Flamsteed for his life and freedom. Spreading in Halley's eyes is darkness and mist (MAG ).
31st December - John Flamsteed dies. He was the Astronomer Royale until his death. Edmund Halley succeeds him (MAG ).
Nathaniel Thorp, a soldier in the Revolutionary War, is at the Battle of Bunker Hill, and flees after being shot. He finds himself confronted by Death, and gambles his life on a game of Faro. After cheating to ensure his victory, Nathaniel finds himself cursed to wander the world, ending lives as the personification of Death for almost years (MAG 29).
October - Abraham Janssen witnesses Wolfgang Von Kempelen attempting to perform The Unknowing in the Court Theatre Buda. The ritual is eventually stopped by a group of soldiers, likely avatars of The Slaughter (MAG ).
2nd November - Abraham Janssen writes down his experiences in his journal (MAG ).
Jeremy Bentham begins work on the Panopticon, a prison where the prisoners were visible at all times by the guards, on the site of what will become Millbank Prison (MAG 41).

Edit

Winter - Albrecht von Closen is haunted by a strange man after investigating the tomb of Johann von Württemberg in the Schwarzwald (MAG 23).
Robert Smirke begins work on Millbank Penitentiary (MAG 41).
Rudolph Zeitler is found dead in his home after stealing jewelry from the von Closen household, possibly including a coin from Johann von Württemberg's tomb. Doctors rule his injuries as "beyond the capacity of human violence" (MAG 23).
The Magnus Institute is founded by Jonah Magnus (MAG 1 and MAG 23).
Work is completed on Millbank Penitentiary (MAG 41).
9th April - Barnabas Bennett writes a letter to Jonah Magnus begging for help in returning from a world where he appears to be the only living human (MAG 92).
April - Doctor Jonathan Fanshawe visits Albrecht von Closen, before performing his autopsy upon his death (MAG ).
Sampson Kempthorne takes on a protege, George Gilbert Scott, who frequently (and violently) redesigns his plans for various workhouses to be far more cramped and claustrophobic. He later is encountered by a cloaked and disconcerting figure, who disappears, leaving evidence of Gilbert Scott's presence. Upon finding Gilbert Scott's worksite, he finds that a labourer is convinced that his friend has been placed inside a wall by a "Governor", though none had yet been assigned to the site (MAG 50).
Robert Smirke constructs the complex beneath Pall Mall (MAG 35).
August - Hezekiah Wakely writes a letter to Nathaniel Beale concerning Hezekiah's new job as a grave digger (MAG ).
February - Hezekiah Wakely writes a letter to Nathaniel Beale about Hezekiah's habit of sleeping in the church yard. He further writes about falling asleep in a grave, then dreaming that the grave collapsed around him and then waking outside the grave (MAG ).
June - Hezekiah Wakely writes a letter to Nathaniel Beale about Nelly Cooper, who was nearly buried alive, resulting in the Reverend deciding that all graves should be fitted with safety bells (MAG ).
December - Hezekiah Wakely writes a letter to Nathaniel Beale about how he was disturbed by the ringing of the safety bell on the grave of Jacob the baker, leading to him cutting the string of the bell (MAG ).
January - Hezekiah Wakely writes a letter to Nathaniel Beale saying he is disappointed Nathaniel told the magistrates about Hezekiah murdering Jacob. Hezekiah further writes he is coming to bury Nathaniel (MAG ).
22nd October - The Millerite Movement's predicted date of the apocalypse goes by without anything happening, leading to the group calling it "The Great Disappointment" (MAG ).
Robert Smirke retires, and begins looking into "alternative" religions. In the future his buildings will host an abnormally high number of paranormal incidents (MAG 35).
Late May - Benjamin Carlisle and his wife leave Savannah, heading along the Oregon Trail (MAG 58)
Late November - Benjamin Carlisle and his wife are lured into the Rocky mountains by Eustace Wick, who tries to kill and eat them. Both men are killed in the struggle, and Mrs. Carlisle is left alongside the corpse of her husband, which she begins to believe is telling her to eat him (MAG 58).
4th December - Mrs. Carlisle writes a letter in regards to cannibalism while attempting to travel the Oregon Trail. (N.B. While the description marks the statement as being written December 4th, the filing number indicates it was registered as being taken on the 5th of December) (MAG 58)
Simon Fairchild attempts the "Awful Deep," a grand ritual for the Vast. It is sabotaged by a Hunter and fails (MAG ).
Lt. Charles Fleming is pursued across China by those killed in the Taiping Rebellion after escaping the destruction of the HMS Nemesis (MAG ).
Algernon Moss outbids Maxwell Rayner at an auction, and is visited that night by a "Sandman". He blinds himself rather than see the creature any more (MAG 98). (N.B. it is assumed that Moss gives his statement to the Magnus Institute relatively soon after this event.)
The last records of the existence of Garland Hillier (MAG ).
13th February - Robert Smirke begins writing a letter to Jonah Magnus, urging Magnus to not attempt to wear the Watcher's Crown. Smirke dies of apoplexy before finishing the letter (MAG ).
Millbank Penitentiary is demolished (MAG 41).
The house at Hilltop Road is bought by Walter Fielding (MAG 8)

Edit

Sir Frederick Treeves publishes The Tale of a Field Hospital, a collection of columns written for the British Medical Journal detailing his experiences working in a field hospital during the Second Boer War, with the sections detailing Treeves' encounters with one Pvt. Amherst omitted (MAG 68)
A branch of the von Closen family moves to England (MAG 23).
May - Wilfred Owen encounters "the Piper" whilst left for dead on the fields of France during the First World War (MAG 7).
4th November - Wilfred Owen dies, ostensibly just as the war ends (MAG 7).
Elsa von Closen marries Michael Keay (MAG 23).
Walter Fielding dies. The house at Hill Top Road is inherited by his son, Alfred Fielding (MAG 8).
Mary Keay is born (MAG 23) (N.B. This is later contradicted by MAG 62).
Percy Fawcett goes on his second trip to the Amazon in an attempt to find the Lost City of Z (MAG ).
Simon Fairchild, a con artist, is thrown from a fourth floor window by an irate member of the public (MAG 51).
April - Robert E. Geiger and Harry Eisenhard arrive at Stefan Brotchen's farm in Boise City, Oklahoma to write a story about the ongoing dust storms. As the storm hits, Brotchen appears to choke, and they flee by car, but in the darkness of the storm Eisenhard disappears and Brotchen chokes to death (MAG 99).
Eugene Vanderstock born (MAG ).
During the blitz (September 7, – May 11, )
Eugene Vanderstock begins setting buildings on fire, creating targets for German bombers (MAG ).
November - Sgt. Walter Heller, after being injured during Operation Crusader, is hospitalised in Alexandria in Egypt. While taking a walk during his recovery process, he locates a lost offshoot of the Serapeum of Alexandria. Inside, he finds himself pursued by a robed, cyclopean figure. He also feels watched by many pairs of eyes, a phenomenon repeated over half a century later when he gives his statement to the Magnus Institute in (MAG 53).
Late - The Slaughter attempts its ritual. It fails (MAG ).
August - The 11th Army Hospital Train begins operating in the European theatre of World War 2 (MAG 76).
April - The 11th Army Hospital Train is derailed, killing 5 crew members and injuring William Hay suggests that this might have been deliberately done to kill a violent medic (MAG 76).
Luca Moretti is part of an expedition into the Alps to hunt down deserters, described as rotten ("Sono andanti marcio") (MAG 95). N.B. This is assumed to take place soon after the Italian armistice was signed in
s
Arthur Nolan suggests creating a messiah who will eventually enact a ritual for the Desolation. The pregnant Eileen Montague volunteers her child and she is burned to death as Agnes Montague is born.
November - Yuri and Ivan Utkin visit the Circus of the Other with their father. Ivan goes missing and is made to walk a tightrope as main attraction. While searching for his brother, Yuri finds a collection of circus freaks that defy biological explanation (MAG 44).
A young Mary Keay (apparently nine years old) sneaks into the surgery of Dr. Margaret Tillerson in Whitechapel while her mother works at the Magnus Institute. She witnesses Dr. Tillerson murder a patient and use what would become a Leitner book to extort money from patients “bound” within the pages. Mary Keay uses her father’s straight-razor to kill the doctor in return, taking both the book and a smaller, unnamed book on dying animals for herself (MAG 62).
Alfred Fielding dies. The house at Hill Top Road is inherited by his son, Raymond Fielding (MAG 8).
Autumn - Trevor Herbert and his brother Nigel are taken in by the "vampire" Sylvia McDonald. Nigel is drained of blood, but Trevor is able to kill the sated creature with a knife wound to the stomach, followed by setting it on fire. The house of Sylvia McDonald is also set alight, and burns to the ground (MAG 10).
s
Raymond Fielding runs a halfway house for children on Hill Top Road in Oxford on behalf of the local diocese. He takes on a girl called Agnes Montague, who the rest of the neighbourhood dislike (MAG 8). Agnes was placed there by the Cult of the Lightless Flame, who found her difficult to raise (MAG ). Ronald Sinclair is compelled to return back to the basement of the house, where Fielding is waiting with a large web-patterned table and a sinister apple, but is able to escape (MAG 59).
Mid to late 60s
Kumo ga tabeteiru, a Japanese spider movie is supposedly released (MAG ).
June - Trevor Herbert kills the vampire Robert Arden (MAG 10).
Circa
Gertrude Robinson begins working against the Cult of the Lightless Flame (MAG ).
Elias Bouchard works as a filing clerk at The Magnus Institute (MAG 29). (contradictory with MAG 49, perhaps intentionally so)
Neil Lagorio splits with his partner Gabe who had worked with him on Labyrinth of the Minotaur (MAG ).
April - Rosa Meyer is going through the belongings of Christopher Meyer. Whilst handling a hand mirror she glimpses a face behind her, leading to a feeling of being watched that doesn’t fade away (MAG 60).
4th June - Nathaniel Thorp gives his statement to the Magnus Institute, cutting off a finger to prove his supernatural nature, having been freed from his curse a few years prior (MAG 29).
James Wright takes over as head of The Magnus Institute after Richard Mendelson. (MAG 49 & MAG )
Raymond Fielding eventually disappears, and leaves the house on Hill Top Road to Agnes. She eventually burns the house to the ground and disappears. Raymond's badly burnt body is found in the basement, missing a hand. (MAG 8) (MAG )
Some time after 9th of October - Gertrude Robinson begins wondering about a Slaughter ritual (MAG ).
Neil Lagorio works on Agents of Orion (MAG ).
Late seventies
Neil Lagorio works on the science fiction movies Beyond Time, Under New York and The Crawling Ones (MAG ).
s
Neil Lagorio works on some of the horror movies of John Carpenter, as well as the horror movies Dead Sky, The Nightmare Children, Forty Winks and Toy Shop (MAG ).
Trevor Herbert kills Alard Dupont, incorrectly believing him to be a vampire (MAG 10 and MAG 56).
Margaret Carnegie dies and leaves her dump to Gordon Goodman (MAG 84).
Julia Montauk is born sometime between April and March
Alexander Wollett is murdered in his home in Ulster, presumably after finding the book that would later detail his demise (MAG 70).
The Bright Lake amusement park is photographed (fully operational) (MAG ).
January - Robin Patton stops leaving his bedroom (MAG 86).
February 12th - Robin Patton wraps himself in a blanket in his cupboard (MAG 86). Later in the month, Benjamin Hatendi investigates Patton's house and finds his corpse, inadvertently touching the dark fluid that pooled around it (MAG 86).
7th March - Benjamin Hatendi dies after repeated nighttime encounters with a mysterious darkness (MAG 86).
24th October - Rosa Meyer kills the driver of a delivery van heading towards the Magnus Institute, filling the van with petrol, but is stopped by police before any attack can be carried out (MAG 60).
Jurgen Leitner rents an office in Pall Mall, just above a series of passages designed by Robert Smirke. He continues renting these offices until (MAG 35).
Jurgen Leitner asks for Harold Silvana and Rachel Turley to dig a hole beneath Pall Mall. When asked to confirm that he has the owner of the building's permission, Leitner becomes aggressive, and they do not do the job (MAG 35).
Neil Lagorio works on the science fiction movie Orbit (MAG ).
Jude Perry meets Agnes Montague (MAG 89).
Julia Montauk's mother disappears from the family house in Dartford in the dead of night, leaving behind a pendant belonging to the Peoples' Church of the Divine Host. No missing person report is filed by her husband, despite him working in the police force (MAG 9).
Elias Bouchard joins the Magnus Institute, working in Artefact Storage (MAG 49).
Canyon Cafe opens. Agnes Montague begins visiting it regularly (MAG 67).
Jude Perry completes her initiation into the Cult of the Lightless Flame (MAG 89).
6th July - Adelard Dekker makes statement , about a creature he refers to as “NotThem” (MAG 77).
Autumn - Carlos Vittery accidentally kills a spider, the resulting half-formed spiders giving him life-long arachnophobia (MAG 16).
Kevin Costner stars in Jewel of the Amazon, with special effect work by Neil Lagorio (MAG ). Between and Lagorio works on the Wire Runner, Eagle Falls and the Harvestmen (MAG and MAG ).
One "Detective Rayner" contacts the Montauk family, asking Robert Montauk to do an unknown act he clearly does not want to do (MAG 9).
Rosa Meyer dies in HM Prison Holloway (MAG 60).
Jurgen Leitner visits Pinhole Books (MAG 62).
Terrence Simpson investigates a disturbance among a crofting community, where the locals have turned rabid (MAG ).
The Leitner library is attacked and destroyed (MAG 4). The attack was made by representatives of many supernatural powers (MAG 80).
June - The individuals that would become known as Breekon & Hope arrive at the office of Alfred Breekon (MAG 96).
Early September – Lucy Cooper visits her parents and finds that her mother Rose has been replaced by Not-Rose (MAG 77).
An unknown entity pursues Julia Montauk, only stopping when her father completes a ritual involving human sacrifice and 41 human hearts. Robert Montauk goes to prison for these crimes (MAG 9).
Some time after the attack on Leitner's library, Jonathan Sims is given a children's book called "A Guest for Mr. Spider". A teenager who frequently bullies him is entranced by the book, and is ensnared by large spider legs emerging from a door he knocks on while under its spell (MAG 81).
Lester Chang confronts his father-in-law in his home, which appears to have been overrun by a creeping purple mould. Breekon and Hope remove the furniture from the infested house (MAG 93).
Elias Bouchard takes over for James Wright as Head of The Magnus Institute (MAG 49).
Ivo Lensik's father is found dead and it is ruled a suicide. (MAG 8)
Trevor Herbert kills a vampire going by the name of Hannah Edwards (MAG 56).
May - Joshua Gillespie meets John in Amsterdam, unwittingly agreeing to look after the wooden coffin (MAG 2).
May 14th - Alfred Breekon gets a delivery from Breekon & Hope. He sneaks away to the Magnus Institute to give his statement, before returning and being killed by his replacements (MAG 96).
September - The Boneturner's Tale is returned to Chiswick Library by Michael Crew, before being immediately taken by Jared Hopworth (MAG 17).
Late October - Sebastian Adekoya is confronted in Chiswick Library by the mother of Jared Hopworth, as she returns The Boneturner's Tale. Late that night, Sebastian returns to the library to be confronted with a changed Jared, who takes The Boneturner's Tale and flees (MAG 17).
4th November - Gertrude Robinson commits to tape the statement of Lucy Cooper. Gertrude speculates that creature in the statement is the same as Adelard Dekker refers to as the “NotThem” in statement (MAG 77).
Gertrude Robinson begins tracking supplicants drawn by the siren call of flesh in hopes of stopping the Flesh ritual. (MAG ). (N.B. This assumes the ritual of the Flesh taking place in , based on Gertrude's comment about the Carlisle boy.)
Dexter Banks directs Red Ronin (MAG ).
Two men from Breekon & Hope deliver a wooden coffin to Joshua Gillespie (MAG 2).
15th April - Gertrude Robinson commits to tape the statement of Yuri Utkin (MAG 44).
September - Michael Crew first appears at Lion Street Books in Chichester (MAG 46).
5th September - Sergeant Walter Heller gives his statement in regard to a discovery made near Alexandria during Operation Crusader (MAG 53).
Two men from Breekon & Hope and John pick up the wooden coffin from Joshua Gillespie (MAG 2).
January - Herbert Knox’s former lover, Kirsten, dies after losing her balance and falling down a flight of stairs, leaving Knox Ex Altiora(MAG 46).
February – Michael Crew buys Ex Altiora from Lion Street Books, though his cheque bounces. When Herbert Knox tries to find him to request payment, he uses Ex Altiora in a ritual to try and fend off the Lichtenburg figure that has been pursuing him. He throws himself from a church spire, and neither he nor Ex Altiora return to Lions Street Books (MAG 46).
March - An explosion in Alexandria destroys several buildings – Jonathan Sims later theorises that this is related to the Serapeum of Alexandria being located by Sgt Walter Heller and Gertrude Robinson six months earlier (MAG 53).
A number of the Magnus Institute's files are leaked to the press, causing widespread derision (MAG 68).
September - Mikaele Salesa sells a meat grinder to the cook on his ship. The cook begins serving his own meat to the crew, healing himself with the meat grinder. Mikaele fights the cook, who is thrown overboard (MAG ).
October - The Bright Lake amusement park closes its door for the last time (MAG ).

Edit

18th January
Vincent Yang is kept unintentionally imprisoned by Mikaele Salesa after impounding cargo going through Portsmouth. Yang awakens from sleep inside a wooden crate barely large enough to move in. He stays there for what he perceives as days, before eventually being released by Salesa and Peter Lukas on the 19th of January (MAG 66).

Edit

April
Lawrence Moore realises that his cousin Carl has been replaced by Not-Carl. Adelard Dekker comes to him and performs a binding ritual to bind the creature to a web-patterned table (MAG 78).
4th August
Desmond and Samantha Folger die in a car crash on the M1 near Sheffield (MAG 3).

Edit

First week of March
Harold Silvana, Rachel Turley, and Alfred Bartlet (with the help of Gerard Keay) discover a passageway while doing renovation work beneath the Reform Club in Pall Mall. Alfred dies, allegedly from a heart attack, and Gerard escapes with a book. All survivors, as well as the police that investigate, deny all knowledge of the incident (MAG 35).
Late March
Robert Montauk is visited in HMP Wakefield by Maxwell Rayner. The lights blow midway through the visit, and the guard Phillip Brown hears Rayner tell Montauk "You didn't think you could kill it for long, did you?" In the coming months, taps in the prison begin to run with stagnant water (MAG 52).
Early June
Robert Kelly takes part in a charity tandem jump in Doncaster, but when he leaves the plane there is no ground, only an endless, bright, blue sky stretching out before him. When he lands, his co-workers tell him he was falling for 15 minutes, but for Robert it felt like hours, or even days (MAG 21).
3rd June
Joseph Puce hears an impact in one of his fields in Doncaster, and finds a single parachute. There is no skydiving above his property that day (MAG 21).
7th June
Robert Kelly is reported missing by his mother, after "the sky ate him" (MAG 21).
24th July
Isaac Masters and Alice "Daisy" Tonner stop a Breekon & Hope delivery van. Upon being shown the interior of the van by "Tom", Breekon and Hope, Masters opens the coffin being transported, and disappears down the staircase inside. Tonner is injured and made to sign a Section 31 (MAG 61).
1st November
Phillip Brown and Peter Gordo encounter an unnatural darkness inside the cell of Robert Montauk in HMP Wakefield including another growling figure in the darkness (MAG 52). Robert Montauk is found dead in HMP Wakefield. He was stabbed 47 times in the chest, and the light bulb in his cell was blown out (MAG 9)

Edit

Fiona Law, a research assistant at the Magnus Institute, supposedly passes away from complications following a liver transplant (MAG 29). Jonathan Sims reveals this to be false (MAG ).
3rd June
Joseph Russo gives a statement in regards to a first edition copy of The Tale of a Field Hospital (suspected to have been compiled by Jurgen Leitner), which he gives to the Magnus Institute (MAG 68).
5th June
Joseph Russo is found dead in his apartment, due to infection of a paper cut to his finger (MAG 68).
July
Paul McKenzie is visited at night by a presence that attempts to gain access to his bedroom every night for over a month (MAG 27).
1st August
Phillip Doer falls beneath a train at Birmingham New Street Station, after finding the book that would later detail his demise (MAG 70). N.B. this is also placed as occurring in February in the same statement.
August
Masato Murray is left a book by Phillip Doer. The book contains a series of stories of gruesome deaths, ending in his own, changing every time it is read (MAG 70).
October
Paul McKenzie dies of a stroke (MAG 27).
4th November
Enrique MacMillan gives a statement of his account of finding a presumed Leitner book. Afterwards, he attempts to claw under the floorboards of the Head Archivist's office at the Institute (MAG 88).
Winter
John Haan lets the staff of his takeaway go, and replaces them with his nephew Tom Haan (MAG 72).
Circa
Neil Lagorio supposedly begins suffering from Parkinson's (MAG ).

Edit

Gertrude Robinson checks out the statement of Second Lieutenant Charles Fleming at the Pu Songling Research Centre, Beijing (MAG ).
9th April
Phillip Brown gives his statement regarding his time working at HMP Wakefield (MAG 52)
May
John Haan’s takeaway in Walthamstow is closed down after he is arrested for murdering his wife, Lanying, after disposing of her body in the meat he sold (MAG 72).
5th July
Toby Carlisle begins a bimonthly series of hours-long hammering that causes his downstairs neighbour Christof Rudenko some distress (MAG 18).
August
Nikolai Denikin dies. In the aftermath, his granddaughter, Leanne, finds a bright red calliope organ in his attic, along with a collection of wooden dolls. She plays it to her boyfriend, Josh, who is found mangled, with his jaw removed, after they split up. The calliope organ is removed, and later finds its way to the Magnus Institute's artefact storage (MAG 24).

Edit

Father Edwin Burroughs begins his work as exorcist for the Diocese of Oxford (MAG 19).

January
Christof Rudenko delivers a package to his upstairs neighbour, Toby Carlisle, learning his name (MAG 18).
Grant Walker loses his job at Deloitte and moves in with his brother Stephen (MAG 75).
October
Stephen and Grant Walker are locked out of their house. Stephen breaks his arm, and Grant is forced to confront his fear of ladders. During this, they encounter Michael Crew, who watches them for a while (MAG 75).
November
Jessica McEwen is taken by an agent of The Stranger in Old Fishmarket Close (MAG 1).

Edit

Antonia Haley takes part in a salvage dive of the Maria Fairchild in the Graveyard of the Atlantic, near Sable Island, Nova Scotia, accompanied by Simon Fairchild. In the wreck, Hayley discovers a portal in the hull to a region of high-pressure water with a colossal hand on the other side (MAG 51).
Deborah Mandaki begins attending a sculpting class alongside "Gabriel" (MAG ).
22nd January
Adelard Dekker writes a letter to Gertrude Robinson warning her that a 15th power is emerging (MAG ).
7th April
Amy Patel witnesses Graham Folger's appearance change due the NotThem. Graham has in his possession a large table with a web pattern upon it (MAG 3).
17th April
Sebastian Adekoya is found dead, allegedly from a hit-and-run, with a number of his bones twisted (MAG 17).
August
Sarah Baldwin is taken by an agent of The Stranger in Old Fishmarket Close (MAG 1).
October
Agnes Montague talks to Jude Perry who asks for Agnes to do a job, then hands her a "collection" in an envelope when she refuses (MAG 67).
Stephen and Grant Walker encounter Michael Crew again at the top of Tour Montparnasse. Grant disappears along with Crew (MAG 75).
20th November
Eugene Vanderstock makes his statement to the Magnus Institute after being told by Arthur to do so. Eugene says he wants to kill Gertrude Robinson but that Arthur tells him not to harm her yet. However Arthur's authority has been weakened and many in the Cult of the Lightless Flame are looking to Diego Molina for leadership (MAG ).
23rd November
Ivo Lensik uproots a tree at a house on Hill Top Road (MAG 8). Simultaneously, Father Edwin Burroughs finds himself saved from an intense heat at the same house by the the demonic entity within him (MAG 19).
Agnes Montague meets with other members of the Cult of the Lightless Flame, including possibly Diego Molina and Arthur Nolan. She kisses her date, Jack Barnabas, giving him severe burns in the process (MAG 67). Agnes tells the cultists that if she died a cold and quiet death the cultists would have another chance at performing their ritual soon. The cultists hang her (MAG ). Later that night, she is found dead in her Sheffield flat with a severed human hand attached to her wrist, whose owner must have died at the same time as her (MAG 8).
December
Daniel Rawlings is taken by an agent of The Stranger in Old Fishmarket Close (MAG 1).

Edit

"The Key of Solomon owned by MacGregor Mathers and Jurgen Leitner" is purchased on eBay by user grbookworm (MAG 4). Later investigation by Jonathan Sims reveals this to be Gertrude Robinson (MAG 66).
Early
The Daedalus satellite is launched by Stratosphere Group, a consortium of scientific and aerospace groups including Pinnacle Aerospace (majority owned by the Fairchild family), Nathaniel Lukas (of the Lukas Family) and Optics Solutions Ltd. (based in Ny-Ålesund) (MAG 57).
Late
Carter Chilcott goes to the Daedalus alongside Jan Kilbride and Manuela Dominguez in the employ of Conrad Lukas. He eventually escapes his isolation experiment (and various paranormal phenomena) after his exit code fails by refusing to eat or drink until the experiment ends (MAG 57). Jan Kilbride becomes traumatised by The Vast (MAG ). Manuela uses fake science to create a tiny dark sun (MAG ).
Summer
Gregory Pryor, a private investigator, follows Hector Lerado on the orders of Lerado’s wife, Nicola. He discovers that Lerado is involved in drug smuggling with the Ukrainian mafia, and upon Lerado’s loss of a shipment, tails him to a butcher’s in Stockwell. There, Lerado is butchered and disposed of down a tooth-lined chute in the floor by a “man” called Jared, while Pryor hides in a locker. When Pryor attempts to escape, Jared removes the bones from his left arm. When police investigate the site, they find the body of Harry Gough, the owner of the property buried beneath the floor (MAG 49).
14th April
Statement given by Ivo Lensik to the Institute (MAG 8). Statement later destroyed by Martin (MAG )
2nd September
Gertrude Robinson, helped by her assistant Michael Shelley, begin to identify North America as the focal point for what she calls the Buried. She also wishes to confirm the status of Jan Kilbride once he returns from the Daedalus satellite (MAG 99).
Источник: [vvjstudio.com]
, Sims 4 Serial Key Archives

After purchasing a game through Origin, locate the code in the receipt email that you should have received. You need this code to install your game.

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Find your code in the Origin client

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Once you find your product code, you can then redeem your code to create a digital copy of your game.

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Источник: [vvjstudio.com]
Sims 4 Serial Key Archives

SIM card

Integrated circuit card for a mobile device
A typical SIM card (mini-SIM with micro-SIM cutout)
A TracFone Wireless SIM card has no distinctive carrier markings and is only marked as a "SIM CARD".

A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), widely known as a SIM card, is an integrated circuit that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers). It is also possible to store contact information on many SIM cards. SIM cards are always used on GSM phones; for CDMA phones, they are needed only for LTE-capable handsets. SIM cards can also be used in satellite phones, smart watches, computers, or cameras.

The SIM circuit is part of the function of a universal integrated circuit card (UICC) physical smart card, which is usually made of PVC with embedded contacts and semiconductors. SIM cards are transferable between different mobile devices. The first UICC smart cards were the size of credit and bank cards; sizes were reduced several times over the years, usually keeping electrical contacts the same, so that a larger card could be cut down to a smaller size.

A SIM card contains a unique serial number (ICCID), international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number, security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network, a list of the services the user has access to, and two passwords: a personal identification number (PIN) for ordinary use, and a personal unblocking key (PUK) for PIN unlocking. In Europe, the serial SIM number (SSN) is also sometimes accompanied by an international article number (IAN) or a European article number (EAN) required when registering on line for the subscription of a prepaid cards.

History and procurement[edit]

The SIM card is a type of smart card,[1] the basis for which is the siliconintegrated circuit (IC) chip.[2] The idea of incorporating a silicon IC chip onto a plastic card originates from the late s.[2] Smart cards have since used MOS integrated circuit chips, along with MOS memory technologies such as flash memory and EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory).[3]

The SIM was initially specified by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute in the specification with the number TS This specification describes the physical and logical behaviour of the SIM. With the development of UMTS, the specification work was partially transferred to 3GPP. 3GPP is now responsible for the further development of applications like SIM (TS [4]) and USIM (TS [5]) and ETSI for the further development of the physical card UICC.

The first SIM card was developed in by Munich smart-card maker Giesecke & Devrient, who sold the first SIM cards to the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja.[6][7]

Today, SIM cards are ubiquitous, allowing over 7 billion devices to connect to cellular networks around the world. According to the International Card Manufacturers Association (ICMA), there were billion SIM cards manufactured globally in creating over $ billion in revenue for traditional SIM card vendors.[8] The rise of cellular IoT and 5G networks is predicted to drive the growth of the addressable market for SIM card manufacturers to over 20 billion cellular devices by [9] The introduction of Embedded SIM (eSIM) and remote SIM provisioning (RSP) from the GSMA[10] may disrupt the traditional SIM card ecosystem with the entrance of new players specializing in "digital" SIM card provisioning and other value-added services for mobile network operators.

Design[edit]

SIM chip structure and packaging

There are three operating voltages for SIM cards: 5 V, 3 V and V (ISO/IEC classes A, B and C, respectively). The operating voltage of the majority of SIM cards launched before was 5 V. SIM cards produced subsequently are compatible with 3 V and 5 V. Modern cards support 5 V, 3 V and V[citation needed].

4 by 4 millimetres (&#;in ×&#;&#;in) silicon chip in a SIM card which has been peeled open. Note the thin gold bonding wires, and the regular, rectangular digital memory areas.

Modern SIM cards allow applications to load when the SIM is in use by the subscriber. These applications communicate with the handset or a server using SIM Application Toolkit, which was initially specified by 3GPP in TS (There is an identical ETSI specification with different numbering.) ETSI and 3GPP maintain the SIM specifications. The main specifications are: ETSI TS (the toolkit for smartcards), ETSI TS (API), ETSI TS (application invocation), and ETSI TS (toolkit for more SIM-likes). SIM toolkit applications were initially written in native code using proprietary APIs. To provide interoperability of the applications, ETSI chose Java Card.[11] A multi-company collaboration called GlobalPlatform defines some extensions on the cards, with additional APIs and features like more cryptographic security and RFID contactless use added.[12]

Data[edit]

SIM cards store network-specific information used to authenticate and identify subscribers on the network. The most important of these are the ICCID, IMSI, Authentication Key (Ki), Local Area Identity (LAI) and Operator-Specific Emergency Number. The SIM also stores other carrier-specific data such as the SMSC (Short Message service center) number, Service Provider Name (SPN), Service Dialing Numbers (SDN), Advice-Of-Charge parameters and Value Added Service (VAS) applications. (Refer to GSM [13])

SIM cards can come in various data capacities, from 8 KB to at least KB. All can store a maximum of contacts on the SIM, but while the 32 KB has room for 33 Mobile Network Codes (MNCs) or network identifiers, the 64 KB version has room for 80 MNCs.[citation needed] This is used by network operators to store data on preferred networks, mostly used when the SIM is not in its home network but is roaming. The network operator that issued the SIM card can use this to have a phone connect to a preferred network that is more economic for the provider instead of having to pay the network operator that the phone 'saw' first. This does not mean that a phone containing this SIM card can connect to a maximum of only 33 or 80 networks, but it means that the SIM card issuer can specify only up to that number of preferred networks. If a SIM is outside these preferred networks it uses the first or best available network.

ICCID[edit]

Each SIM is internationally identified by its integrated circuit card identifier (ICCID). ICCID is the identifier of the actual SIM card itself – i.e. an identifier for the SIM chip. Nowadays ICCID numbers are also used to identify eSIM profiles, and not only physical SIM cards. ICCIDs are stored in the SIM cards and are also engraved or printed on the SIM card body during a process called personalisation. The ICCID is defined by the ITU-T recommendation E as the Primary Account Number.[14] Its layout is based on ISO/IEC According to E, the number can be up to 22 digits long, including a single check digit calculated using the Luhn algorithm. However, the GSM Phase 1[15] defined the ICCID length as an opaque data field, 10 octets (20 digits) in length, whose structure is specific to a mobile network operator.

The number is composed of the following subparts:

Issuer identification number (IIN)

Maximum of seven digits:

  • Major industry identifier (MII), 2 fixed digits, 89 for telecommunication purposes.
  • Country code, 2 or 3 digits, as defined by ITU-T recommendation E
    • NANP countries, apart from Canada, use 01, i.e. prepending a zero to their common calling code +1
    • Canada uses
    • Russia uses , i.e. appending 01 to its calling code +7
    • Kazakhstan uses , even though it shares the calling code +7 with Russia
  • Issuer identifier, 1–4 digits.

Individual account identification

Check digit

  • Single digit calculated from the other digits using the Luhn algorithm.

With the GSM Phase 1 specification using 10 octets into which ICCID is stored as packed BCD, the data field has room for 20 digits with hexadecimal digit "F" being used as filler when necessary.

In practice, this means that on GSM SIM cards there are digit (19+1) and digit (18+1) ICCIDs in use, depending upon the issuer. However, a single issuer always uses the same size for its ICCIDs.

To confuse matters more, SIM factories seem to have varying ways of delivering electronic copies of SIM personalization datasets. Some datasets are without the ICCID checksum digit, others are with the digit.

As required by E, the ITU-T updates a list of all current internationally assigned IIN codes in its Operational Bulletins which are published twice a month (the last is No. from 1 January ).[16] ITU-T also publishes complete lists: as of January , the list issued on 1 December was current, having all issuer identifier numbers before 1 December [17]

International mobile subscriber identity (IMSI)[edit]

SIM cards are identified on their individual operator networks by a unique International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). Mobile network operators connect mobile phone calls and communicate with their market SIM cards using their IMSIs. The format is:

  • The first three digits represent the Mobile Country Code (MCC).
  • The next two or three digits represent the Mobile Network Code (MNC). Three-digit MNC codes are allowed by E but are mainly used in the United States and Canada.
  • The next digits represent the mobile subscriber identification number (MSIN). Normally there are 10 digits, but can be fewer in the case of a 3-digit MNC or if national regulations indicate that the total length of the IMSI should be less than 15 digits.
  • Digits are different from country to country.

Authentication key (Ki)[edit]

The Ki is a bit value used in authenticating the SIMs on a GSM mobile network (for USIM network, you still need Ki but other parameters are also needed). Each SIM holds a unique Ki assigned to it by the operator during the personalization process. The Ki is also stored in a database (termed authentication center or AuC) on the carrier's network.

The SIM card is designed to prevent someone from getting the Ki by using the smart-card interface. Instead, the SIM card provides a function, Run GSM Algorithm, that the phone uses to pass data to the SIM card to be signed with the Ki. This, by design, makes using the SIM card mandatory unless the Ki can be extracted from the SIM card, or the carrier is willing to reveal the Ki. In practice, the GSM cryptographic algorithm for computing SRES_2 (see step 4, below) from the Ki has certain vulnerabilities[18] that can allow the extraction of the Ki from a SIM card and the making of a duplicate SIM card.

Authentication process:

  1. When the mobile equipment starts up, it obtains the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) from the SIM card, and passes this to the mobile operator, requesting access and authentication. The mobile equipment may have to pass a PIN to the SIM card before the SIM card reveals this information.
  2. The operator network searches its database for the incoming IMSI and its associated Ki.
  3. The operator network then generates a random number (RAND, which is a nonce) and signs it with the Ki associated with the IMSI (and stored on the SIM card), computing another number, that is split into the Signed Response 1 (SRES_1, 32 bits) and the encryption key Kc (64 bits).
  4. The operator network then sends the RAND to the mobile equipment, which passes it to the SIM card. The SIM card signs it with its Ki, producing SRES_2 and Kc, which it gives to the mobile equipment. The mobile equipment passes SRES_2 on to the operator network.
  5. The operator network then compares its computed SRES_1 with the computed SRES_2 that the mobile equipment returned. If the two numbers match, the SIM is authenticated and the mobile equipment is granted access to the operator's network. Kc is used to encrypt all further communications between the mobile equipment and the network.

Location area identity[edit]

The SIM stores network state information, which is received from the Location Area Identity (LAI). Operator networks are divided into Location Areas, each having a unique LAI number. When the device changes locations, it stores the new LAI to the SIM and sends it back to the operator network with its new location. If the device is power cycled, it takes data off the SIM, and searches for the prior LAI.

SMS messages and contacts[edit]

Most SIM cards store a number of SMS messages and phone book contacts. It stores the contacts in simple "name and number" pairs. Entries that contain multiple phone numbers and additional phone numbers are usually not stored on the SIM card. When a user tries to copy such entries to a SIM, the handset's software breaks them into multiple entries, discarding information that is not a phone number. The number of contacts and messages stored depends on the SIM; early models stored as few as five messages and 20 contacts, while modern SIM cards can usually store over contacts.[citation needed]

Formats[edit]

SIM cards have been made smaller over the years; functionality is independent of format. Full-size SIM were followed by mini-SIM, micro-SIM, and nano-SIM. SIM cards are also made to embed in devices.

From left, full-size SIM (1FF), mini-SIM (2FF), micro-SIM (3FF), and nano-SIM (4FF)
SIM card format Introduced Standard reference Length Width Thickness
Full-size (1FF) ISO/IEC , ID-1 &#;mm (&#;in) &#;mm (&#;in) &#;mm (&#;in)
Mini-SIM (2FF) ISO/IEC , ID 25&#;mm (&#;in) 15&#;mm (&#;in) &#;mm (&#;in)
Micro-SIM (3FF) ETSI TS V, Mini-UICC 15&#;mm (&#;in) 12&#;mm (&#;in) &#;mm (&#;in)
Nano-SIM (4FF) early ETSI TS V &#;mm (&#;in) &#;mm (&#;in) &#;mm (&#;in)
Embedded-SIM
(eSIM)
ETSI TS V

JEDEC Design Guide , SON-8
GSMA SGP V

6&#;mm (&#;in) 5&#;mm (&#;in) <&#;mm (&#;in)

All versions of the non-embedded SIM cards share the same ISO/IEC pin arrangement.

Full-size SIM[edit]

The full-size SIM (or 1FF, 1st form factor) was the first form factor to appear. It was the size of a credit card (&#;mm × &#;mm × &#;mm). Later smaller SIMs are often supplied embedded in a full-size card from which they can be removed.

Mini-SIM[edit]

The memory chip from a micro-SIM card without the plastic backing plate, next to a US dime, which is approx. 18 mm in diameter
X-ray of a Mini-SIM, showing the chip and connections

The mini-SIM (or 2FF) card has the same contact arrangement as the full-size SIM card and is normally supplied within a full-size card carrier, attached by a number of linking pieces. This arrangement (defined in ISO/IEC as ID-1/) lets such a card be used in a device that requires a full-size card&#;&#; or in a device that requires a mini-SIM card, after breaking the linking pieces. As the full-size SIM is no longer used, some suppliers refer to the mini-SIM as a "standard SIM" or "regular SIM".

Micro-SIM[edit]

The micro-SIM (or 3FF) card has the same thickness and contact arrangements, but reduced length and width as shown in the table above.[19]

The micro-SIM was introduced by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) along with SCP, 3GPP (UTRAN/GERAN), 3GPP2 (CDMA), ARIB, GSM Association (GSMA SCaG and GSMNA), GlobalPlatform, Liberty Alliance, and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) for the purpose of fitting into devices too small for a mini-SIM card.[20][21]

The form factor was mentioned in the December 3GPP SMG9 UMTS Working Party, which is the standards-setting body for GSM SIM cards,[22] and the form factor was agreed upon in late [23]

The micro-SIM was designed for backward compatibility. The major issue for backward compatibility was the contact area of the chip. Retaining the same contact area makes the micro-SIM compatible with the prior, larger SIM readers through the use of plastic cutout surrounds. The SIM was also designed to run at the same speed (5&#;MHz) as the prior version. The same size and positions of pins resulted in numerous "How-to" tutorials and YouTube videos with detailed instructions how to cut a mini-SIM card to micro-SIM size.[24]

The chairman of EP SCP, Dr. Klaus Vedder, said[23]

ETSI has responded to a market need from ETSI customers, but additionally there is a strong desire not to invalidate, overnight, the existing interface, nor reduce the performance of the cards.

Micro-SIM cards were introduced by various mobile service providers for the launch of the original iPad, and later for smartphones, from April The iPhone 4 was the first smartphone to use a micro-SIM card in June , followed by many others.

Nano-SIM[edit]

The nano-SIM (or 4FF) card was introduced on 11 October , when mobile service providers in various countries started to supply it for phones that supported the format. The nano-SIM measures &#;mm ×&#;&#;mm ×&#;&#;mm (&#;in ×&#;&#;in ×&#;&#;in) and reduces the previous format to the contact area while maintaining the existing contact arrangements. A small rim of isolating material is left around the contact area to avoid short circuits with the socket. The nano-SIM is &#;mm (&#;in) thick, compared to the &#;mm (&#;in) of its predecessor. 4FF can be put into adapters for use with devices designed for 2FF or 3FF SIMs, and is made thinner for that purpose,[25] and telephone companies give due warning about this.[26]

The iPhone 5, released in September , was the first device to use a nano-SIM card, followed by other handsets.

Security[edit]

In July , Karsten Nohl, a security researcher from SRLabs, described[27][28] vulnerabilities in some SIM cards that supported DES, which, despite its age, is still used by some operators.[28] The attack could lead to the phone being remotely cloned or let someone steal payment credentials from the SIM.[28] Further details of the research were provided at BlackHat on July 31, [28][29]

In response, the International Telecommunication Union said that the development was "hugely significant" and that it would be contacting its members.[30]

In February , it was reported by The Intercept that the NSA and GCHQ had stolen the encryption keys (Ki's) used by Gemalto (the manufacturer of 2 billion SIM cards annually), enabling these intelligence agencies to monitor voice and data communications without the knowledge or approval of cellular network providers or judicial oversight.[31] Having finished its investigation, Gemalto claimed that it has “reasonable grounds” to believe that the NSA and GCHQ carried out an operation to hack its network in and , but says the number of possibly stolen keys would not have been massive.[32]

Developments[edit]

When GSM was already in use, the specifications were further developed and enhanced with functionality such as SMS and GPRS. These development steps are referred as releases by ETSI. Within these development cycles, the SIM specification was enhanced as well: new voltage classes, formats and files were introduced.

USIM[edit]

In GSM-only times, the SIM consisted of the hardware and the software. With the advent of UMTS this naming was split: the SIM was now an application and hence only software. The hardware part was called UICC. This split was necessary because UMTS introduced a new application, the universal subscriber identity module (USIM). The USIM brought, among other things, security improvements like the mutual authentication and longer encryption keys and an improved address book.

UICC[edit]

"SIM cards" in developed countries today are usually UICCs containing at least a SIM application and a USIM application. This configuration is necessary because older GSM only handsets are solely compatible with the SIM application and some UMTS security enhancements rely on the USIM application.

Other variants[edit]

On cdmaOne networks, the equivalent of the SIM card is the R-UIM and the equivalent of the SIM application is the CSIM.

A virtual SIM is a mobile phone number provided by a mobile network operator that does not require a SIM card to connect phone calls to a user's mobile phone.

Embedded-SIM (eSIM)[edit]

Embedded SIM from M2M supplier Eseye with an adapter board for evaluation in a Mini-SIM socket

An embedded-SIM (eSIM) is a form of programmable SIM that is embedded directly into a device. The surface mount format provides the same electrical interface as the full size, 2FF and 3FF SIM cards, but is soldered to a circuit board as part of the manufacturing process. In M2M applications where there is no requirement to change the SIM card, this avoids the requirement for a connector, improving reliability and security. An eSIM can be provisioned remotely; end-users can add or remove operators without the need to physically swap a SIM from the device.[33]

Usage in mobile phone standards[edit]

SIM cards of various mobile operators

The use of SIM cards is mandatory in GSM devices.

The satellite phone networks Iridium, Thuraya and Inmarsat's BGAN also use SIM cards. Sometimes, these SIM cards work in regular GSM phones and also allow GSM customers to roam in satellite networks by using their own SIM card in a satellite phone.

Japan's 2G PDC system (which was shut down in ; SoftBank Mobile has already shut down PDC from March 31, ) also specifies a SIM, but this has never been implemented commercially. The specification of the interface between the Mobile Equipment and the SIM is given in the RCR STD annex 4. The Subscriber Identity Module Expert Group was a committee of specialists assembled by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to draw up the specifications (GSM ) for interfacing between smart cards and mobile telephones. In , the name SIMEG was changed to SMG9.

Japan's current and next generation cellular systems are based on W-CDMA (UMTS) and CDMA and all use SIM cards. However, Japanese CDMAbased phones are locked to the R-UIM they are associated with and thus, the cards are not interchangeable with other Japanese CDMA handsets (though they may be inserted into GSM/WCDMA handsets for roaming purposes outside Japan).

CDMA-based devices originally did not use a removable card, and the service for these phones bound to a unique identifier contained in the handset itself. This is most prevalent in operators in the Americas. The first publication of the TIA standard (also known as 3GPP2 C.S) in defined the Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM). Card-based CDMA devices are most prevalent in Asia.

The equivalent of a SIM in UMTS is called the universal integrated circuit card (UICC), which runs a USIM application. The UICC is still colloquially called a SIM card.[citation needed]

SIM and carriers[edit]

The SIM card introduced a new and significant business opportunity for MVNOs&#;&#; mobile virtual network operators&#;&#; who lease capacity from one of the network operators rather than owning or operating a cellular telecoms network, and only provide a SIM card to their customers. MVNOs first appeared in Denmark, Hong Kong, Finland and the UK. Today they exist in over 50 countries, including most of Europe, United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia and parts of Asia, and account for approximately 10% of all mobile phone subscribers around the world.[citation needed]

On some networks, the mobile phone is locked to its carrier SIM card, meaning that the phone only works with SIM cards from the specific carrier. This is more common in markets where mobile phones are heavily subsidised by the carriers, and the business model depends on the customer staying with the service provider for a minimum term (typically 12, 18 or 24 months). SIM cards that are issued by providers with an associated contract are called SIM-only deals. Common examples are the GSM networks in the United States, Canada, Australia, the UK and Poland. Many businesses offer the ability to remove the SIM lock from a phone, effectively making it possible to then use the phone on any network by inserting a different SIM card. Mostly, GSM and 3G mobile handsets can easily be unlocked and used on any suitable network with any SIM card.

In countries where the phones are not subsidised, e.g., India, Israel and Belgium, all phones are unlocked. Where the phone is not locked to its SIM card, the users can easily switch networks by simply replacing the SIM card of one network with that of another while using only one phone. This is typical, for example, among users who may want to optimise their carrier's traffic by different tariffs to different friends on different networks, or when traveling internationally.

In , carriers started using the concept of automatic SIM reactivation[34] whereby they let users reuse expired SIM cards instead of purchasing new ones when they wish to re-subscribe to that operator. This is particularly useful in countries where prepaid calls dominate and where competition drives high churn rates, as users had to return to a carrier shop to purchase a new SIM each time they wanted to churn back to an operator.

SIM-only[edit]

Commonly sold as a product by mobile telecommunications companies, "SIM-only" refers to a type of legally binding contract between a mobile network provider and a customer. The contract itself takes the form of a credit agreement and is subject to a credit check.

Within a SIM-only contract the mobile network provider supplies their customer with just one piece of hardware, a SIM card, which includes an agreed amount of network usage in exchange for a monthly payment. Network usage within a SIM-only contract can be measured in minutes, text, data or any combination of these. The duration of a SIM-only contract varies depending on the deal selected by the customer, but in the UK they are available over 1, 3, 6, and month periods.

SIM-only contracts differ from mobile phone contracts in that they do not include any hardware other than a SIM card. In terms of network usage, SIM-only is typically more cost effective than other contracts because the provider does not charge more to offset the cost of a mobile device over the contract period. Short contract length is one of the key features of SIM-only&#;&#; made possible by the absence of a mobile device.

SIM-only is increasing in popularity very quickly.[35] In pay monthly based mobile phone subscriptions grew from 41 percent to 49 percent of all UK mobile phone subscriptions.[36] According to German research company GfK, , SIM-only mobile contracts were taken up in the UK during July alone, the highest figure since GfK began keeping records.

Increasing smartphone penetration combined with financial concerns are leading customers to save money by moving onto a SIM-only when their initial contract term is over.

Multiple-SIM devices[edit]

Dual SIM slots as shown on a Chinese cell phone

Dual-SIM devices have two SIM card slots for the use of two SIM cards, from one or multiple carriers. Dual-SIM mobile phones come with two slots for SIMs in various locations such as: one behind the battery and another on the side of the phone; both slots behind the battery; or on the side of the phone if the device does not have a removable battery. Multiple-SIM devices are commonplace in developing markets such as in Africa, East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, where variable billing rates, network coverage and speed make it desirable for consumers to use multiple SIMs from competing networks. Dual SIM phones are also useful to separate one's personal phone number from a business phone number, without having to carry multiple devices. Some popular devices, such as the BlackBerry KeyOne have dual-SIM variants, however dual-SIM devices were not common in the US or Europe due to lack of demand. This has changed with mainline products from Apple and Google featuring either two SIM slots or a combination of a physical SIM slot and an eSIM.

Thin SIM[edit]

A thin SIM (or overlay SIM or SIM overlay) is a very thin device shaped like a SIM card, approximately microns thick. It has contacts on its front and back. It is used by sticking it on top of a regular SIM card. It provides its own functionality while passing through the functionality of the SIM card underneath. It can be used to bypass the mobile operating network and run custom applications, particularly on non-programmable cell phones.[37]

Its top surface is a connector which connects to the phone in place of the normal SIM. Its bottom surface is a connector which connects to the SIM in place of the phone. With electronics, it can modify signals in either direction, thus presenting a modified SIM to the phone, and/or presenting a modified phone to the SIM. It is a similar concept to the Game Genie, which connects between a game console and a game cartridge, creating a modified game.

A bank in Kenya is issuing thin SIMs to its customers, raising security concerns by competition but after months of security testing and legal hearing before a Parliamentary Committee on Energy, Information and Communications, the Communications Authority of Kenya (CAK) gave the bank the green light to roll out its thin SIM cards.[38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Tait, Don (August 25, ). "Smart card IC shipments to reach billion units in ". IHS Technology. IHS Markit. Retrieved 24 October
  2. ^ abChen, Zhiqun (). Java Card Technology for Smart Cards: Architecture and Programmer's Guide. Addison-Wesley Professional. pp.&#;3–4. ISBN&#;.
  3. ^Veendrick, Harry J. M. (). Nanometer CMOS ICs: From Basics to ASICs. Springer. pp.&#;, –2. ISBN&#;.
  4. ^"3GPP specification: ". Retrieved 29 April
  5. ^"3GPP specification: ". Retrieved 29 April
  6. ^Asif, Saad Z. (). Next Generation Mobile Communications Ecosystem. John Wiley & Sons. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  7. ^"G&D – History of Giesecke & Devrient". Retrieved 29 April
  8. ^"Official Publication of the International Card Manufacturers Association February Volume 27 No1"(PDF). Retrieved 28 May
  9. ^"Ericsson Mobility Report November "(PDF). Retrieved 28 May
  10. ^"GSMA Embedded SIM and RSP". Retrieved 28 May
  11. ^"ETSI TS UICC API for Java Card™ Release 13"(PDF). Retrieved 8 August
  12. ^"Specifications Archive: Secure Element (Card)". GlobalPlatform.
  13. ^"3GPP specification: ". Retrieved 29 April
  14. ^ITU-T, ITU-T Recommendation E, The international telecommunication charge card, Revision history, Revision "05/"
  15. ^ETSI, ETSI Recommendation GSM , Specifications of the SIM-ME Interface, Version
  16. ^"Operational Bulletin No. (1.I)". vvjstudio.com. Retrieved
  17. ^"List of issuer identifier numbers for the international telecommunication charge card (In accordance with Recommendation ITU-T E (05/))". International Telecommunication Union. 5 January
  18. ^"Hackers crack open mobile network". vvjstudio.com 20 April Retrieved 13 August
  19. ^"What is a microsim card?". vvjstudio.com Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 14 October
  20. ^Gaby Lenhart (1 April ). "The Smart Card Platform". ETSI Technical Committee Smart Card Platform (TB SCP). Retrieved 30 January
  21. ^Segan, Sascha (27 January ). "Inside the iPad Lurks the 'Micro SIM'". PC Magazine. Retrieved 30 January
  22. ^"DRAFT Report of the SMG9 UMTS Working Party, meeting #7 hosted by Nokia in Copenhagen, 15–16 December "(PDF). 3GPP. 25 January Retrieved 27 January
  23. ^ abAntipolis, Sophia (8 December ).
Источник: [vvjstudio.com]
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