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introductor of lots of things in Italy
Marco Polo is reputedly the introductor of lots things in italy. From memory, ice cream, spaghetti,... Probably, some of these are just trials to give a prestigious history to anonymous events, but could someboy include a more complete list (bracketed between "reputedly", "tradition", "legend"). -- alagonkey 01:47 24 Jul 2003 (UTC)
ice cream are from persia(iran)
What does it matter how Marco Polo is spelled in Croatian?Renke
- Supposedly he is Croatian... Adam Bishop 18:44, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)
- Actually it was Dalmatia. And Dalmatia then was Venetian. So much for public education in Croatia! it's as bad as ours in the U.S.! Wetman 21:44, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)
That is the stupidest comment made on this page yet...and to show for it- you're an american. Go to the island of Brac where you can take the Marco Polo tour- visit the house he was born in. It wasn't just DALMATIA it was also part of the ISTIRAN region as well. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 22.214.171.124 (talk) 04:33, 25 February 2008 (UTC)
- Actually you're just reading some overzealous blather from a user who isn't even from Croatia, the IP was from an American ISP. :) Once we remove silly misinterpretations, there is reason to believe that the family came from Curzola, and that they weren't Italic but Slavic. --Shallot 21:56, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)
- This tradition is dubious, there are documents signed by Polo family in Venice since 971). By the way Curzola inhabitants were not at all Slavs, in XI century they requested help from Venice against Slav incursion. --126.96.36.199
- That's definitely not a reason to censor it all. --Joy [shallot] 10:49, 27 Oct 2004 (UTC)
- It's not censorship, just a correction.
- Uh-huh. And the tidbit above is supposed to be the rationale? Is there actually proof that those were all the same Polos? It can really go either way and we'll probably never know, AFAIR, so it is blatant censorship to remove all references to the issue. --Joy [shallot]
- Why did you re-add "Mate" and "Nikola"? Do you want to add "Mathieu" and "Nicolas", or "Matthew" and "Nicholas" too?
- I just reverted the whole bad-faith edit. Those names can go if there are no historical records mentioning those versions. --Joy [shallot]
- Reverted "from [[Crally incorrect. AFAIK, at the time Korcula was part of the independent Republic of Venice, and Marco was a Venetian citizen. Saying that he was "from Croatia" is as incorrect as saying that he was "from Italy" or "from Yugoslavia". The fact that he was born in Korcula which is now part of Croatia is dutifully noted in the article.Jorge Stolfi 13:38, 5 Apr 2004 (UTC)
Euganeo 05:06, 5 April 2006 (UTC) What follows (in reference to discussions on Marco Polo being from Korcula) is historically incorrect, has no academic integrity and is pseudohistorical. Citing the fact that there are migrants in Argentina who declare they are Croatian and with the surname de Poli, is neither here nor there and in-fact diminishes the accuracy and scholarly discussion that Wikipedia should be all about. Read it with a grain (or kilogram) of salt. Euganeo 05:06, 5 April 2006 (UTC)
The "Polo" surname
By Euganeo 05:06, 5 April 2006 (UTC)
Origin of the Polo surname and its variants
Polo is most definitely an Italian surname which dates back centuries before the birth of Marco Polo. What follows is an historical and statistical look at the surname (it's origins and the spread of the surname today). Indeed it is possible that the surname is present in Croatia, this is not disputed. Nor is it disputed that the surname is present and historically attested to in Corsica (France), Spain and throughout the Italiandiaspora. Please read and follow the links and do some of your own research, I have put a lot of effort into ensuring that what is written here is properly referenced and sourced accordingly. I have made use of mainly online services by reputable geneological websites for your convenience. I have endeavoured to ensure that nothing put forward here is mere heresay but can be actually reinforced by attestable fact.
According to the "Origin of Italian Surnames" geneological research site, copyrighted Ettore Rossoni © 2000 "Origine dei Cognomi" (see: http://www.melegnano.net/cognomi/cognomi0014o.htm) and researched by E. Rossoni and Roberto Smacchia; the Polo and Poli surnames are extremely diffuse in Northern Italy. The surname Polo is prevalent in the Veneto region and a secondary pocket of communities in the Salentine peninsula (southern most tip of the Puglia region, nearest Greece) as well as the north-western portion of the island of Sardegna. The surnames are derivatives of the LatincognomenPaullus or directly from the LatincognomenPolus. They cite it's most famous family member as being Marco Polo. In various parts of Italy the communities with this surname may have derived them from various toponyms associated with Polo, such as San Polo (PC) - (PR), San Polo dei Cavalieri (RM), San Polo di Piave (TV), San Polo in Chianti (FI), San Polo Matese (CB), etc.
According to most geneological sources, the surname Polo came from the personal name Paolo (English: Paul) which was an Italian version of the LatinPaullus and Polus (see more on this at the end, including the Hall of Names by Swyrich scroll). Look at the Wikipedia article for Paul which cites its origin as "derived from the Roman surname Paulus (Latin: "small" or "humble")".
According to the Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4, the surname Polo is of Italian and Spanish origin, with the Spanish surname as being "possibly of the same derivation as" that of the Italian: which is "from the personal name Polo, a variant of Paolo (see Paul)." According to the Ancestry.com it's population distribution was derived from the 1920 U.S. Federal Census which found 103,832 matches for Polo in their records:
86,630 matches in Historical Newspapers 15,463 matches in U.S. Records Collection 212 matches in U.S. Immigration Collection 1,527 matches in U.S. Census Images and Indexes
As for the De Polo surname, the Dictionary of American Family Names provides the origin of the surname as "Italian: patronymic from the personal name Polo, a northern variant of Paolo (see Paul)." There were 405 matches for De Polo found in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census records.
Studying the results of the Gens Laboratory (Italia) and its search engine (linked to current telephone directory lists in Italy, see: http://gens.labo.net/) and their studies on the origins and distributions of surnames, the results are quite interesting. In Italy the surname Polo is very prevalent, numbering well into the thousands. In-fact, in the Veneto region alone (the region whose capital is Venice, from where Marco Polo's family originates) includes one of the highest concentrations of the Polo surname and is present in over 424 communities throughout Italy, the majority of which are in the Veneto. In the Veneto region, the Polo family numbers well over one thousand, over a hundred of which actually live in Venice. The slight variant of de Polo is also common and present in 68 communities across Italy, around 95% of which is concentrated in the Veneto region.
Other regions with unusually high instances of communities and large families in the hundreds with the surname Polo exist in the southern most tip of Puglia (as indicated by Ettore Rossoni's research) around 300; in the north-western and south-eastern tips of Sardegna, approximately 325; and in Lombardia, particularly around it's capital city of Milano, where there is the highest number outside the Veneto, around 485. In Friuli-Venezia Giulia there are approximately 305. Every single other region in Italy has a presence of a number of Polo families that number no greater than several hundred, with notable groupings in Lazio (150), Liguria (145) and Piemonte (240), where the surname historically originates from after the 11th century. About 335 others are scattered across the rest of Italy. The de Polo family on the otherhand, is present mostly in the Veneto region, with a concentration that numbers around several hundred.
The variant of Poli is much larger than Polo by far. This surname, which has the same origins as Polo, numbers well into the tens of thousands and is heavily concentrated in the northern Italian regions of the Veneto, Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Umbria, Toscana, Piemonte and Lazio (particularly in Rome). Poli is prominent in every single other region in Italy, each region having an average of several hundred to a thousand.
De Poli and de Polo share much the same geographical information, dispersion and numbers.
In Corsica a derivation of the personal name Paolo includes Paoli and it is a very common name on the island. In-fact Pasquale Paoli was one of Corsica's most famous patriots. This does not mean that Marco Polo is Corsican. This surname on the island originates with the Tuscan settlers on Corsica whose influence there is such that much of the Corsican language relies on medieval Tuscan rural dialect and outweighs the Genovese influence (Genova ruled Corsica for extensive periods of time). The surname of Paoli is so prevalent in Toscana that it numbers well over ten thousand in that region alone, with at least 500 in Rome and about the same scattered over the entire country. The variant Paolo is not as common but still numbers in the hundreds of thousands across Italy, the largest groupings around Napoli in Campania.
The description below is adapted from the House of Names geneological research work and is also listed in the Hall of Names by Swyrich scroll, see an example at: http://search.swyrich.com/sample_scroll.html
"... Origin: Italian
The distinguished surname Polo can be traced back to the ancient and beautiful region of Piedmont. Although people were originally known only by a single name, it became necessary for people to adopt a second name to identify themselves as populations grew and travel became more frequent. The process of adopting mixed hereditary surnames was not complete until the modern era, but the use of hereditary family names in Italy began in the 10th and 11th centuries. Italian hereditary surnames were developed according to fairly general principles and they were characterised by a profusion of derivatives coined from given names. The most common type of family name found in the region of Piedmont is the patronymic surname, which is derived from the father's given name. During the Middle Ages, Italians adopted the patronymic system of name-making because it perfectly complemented the prevailing feudal system. In Italy the popularity of patronymic type of surname is also due to the fact that during the Christian era, people often named their children after saints and biblical figures. The surname Polo came from the personal name Paolo (English: Paul)..." hi
Indeed, Polo is very much an Italian surname and has been for a good one thousand years and more. Euganeo 05:06, 5 April 2006 (UTC)
Next time when posting a reply, please insert four of these ~ on your post so that you sign correctly.
Thank you for your response, however it seems that judging by everything you have written you have completely ingnored all the information I have provided. It is pointless to keep repeating what I have already stated.
Firstly, I do not presume that all "Venetians" during the time of the Venetian Republic were ethnic Italians. I have already stated above that I am very aware of the fact that many "Venetian" citizens were actually Greek, Dalmatian, Christian Albanian and so on. In fact, if you actually read anything I have written you will notice that I gave an example of the Calergi family from Crete, whose original name was "Kalergis" in Greek. They Italianised their surnames and were Venetian citizens. Please read all my statements clearly next time.
Here is what I write above, you obviously did not read it clearly: As a matter of fact I am from the Veneto and I know about the history of my region very well. In fact, as stated in many of my other posts I am an academic in various fields, one of which is Medieval studies with a focus on the Venetian Republic. I am also aware of the fact that numerous Cretan nobels in "Venetian" Greece (such as the Kalergis family) had Italianised their surnames (such as Vendramini Calergi, Capodistria and so on). In fact I have been working on the translation and editing of a translated work from ("stradiotto") Venetian text into English on a series of memoirs involving the Calergi (Kalergis) family on Crete.
I appreciate your "I love Italian people" statement, which is neither here nor there. This is not an "ethnic" debate or a "racial" argument of any sort, it is a point of academic integrity. Integrity which is denigrated each time people attempt to expound theories which are pseudohistorical or not accepted by the mainstream academia.
Columbus (Colombo)? Is generally accepted to be Italian. He himself claimed to be born in the Republic of Genova. Which could be Genoa itself or any of its colonies. There is credence in on possible hypothesis that he was infact of Greek extraction. But that is another debate. (By the way, Christopher Columbus' mother was Susanna Fontanarossa, as Italian as they come).
As for Napoleon. It is absurd to refer to Napoleon as an Italian or Frenchman. He is a Corsican, descended from Italian nobility. This is clearly attested to and easily discovered when reading anything on the man that was Nabolione Buonaparte (Napoleon Bonaparte. Of course, the problems arise when attempting to trace his family's ethnic descent, are they completely Italian or partially "ethnic" Corsican etc... Particularly when taking into consideration that a great deal of Corsicans are descended from Tuscany or Genoa (Italy).
As for the links you provided. I think you will find that these are extremely nationalistic Croatian sites. They are written completely in Serbo-Croatian. They are poorly constructed, very rudimentary, have no academic integrity whatsoever and are completely driven towards one common argument and have all the hallmarks of a website empowered by a centre-right, politically charged agenda.
For someone complaining about poor construction and academic integrity, you are pretty much ignorant of the fact that Serbo-Croatian language does not exist. There are two languages, one called Serbian, the other Croatian.Luka505 16:56, 23 July 2007 (UTC)
One of the links also claims the following: The Croatian Census of Population for 1948 lists DEPOLO on the Island of Korcula with 40 individuals in 15 families...
This is ridiculous in light of the figures I have provided above. Where tens of thousands (when including all the surname variations of Polo, it increases into hundreds of thousands) of Italians in Italy have this surname according to the current census. Therefore, using the same logic as the websites you provided, I could very easily estimate that the chances of Marco Polo being ethnically Croatian stands at approximately 300,000 to 1 (in favour of Italian origin). But I would not lower myself to such petty conclusions.
I find it deplorable that these sorts of pseudohistorical websites are being used as a source of information on academic matters. The problem is further compounded when people such as yourself are easily persuaded into believing the rhetoric of a group inclined towards racial-division and the immoral appropriation of cultural figures from other ethnic communities.
Please, Evergreen, consider what I have written above. Read all of the details before blindly believing what some Croatians have written. Consider why these Croatians are writing these sorts of theories. The websites for example have no academic qualities whatsoever. In-fact, all of my Croatian colleagues (with the exception of one or two Slovenians in Melbourne) who are against these sort of right-wing pseudohistorical writings by less-informed Croatians. Many of us are trying to help people to understand that they themselves can find out the truth by going to libraries, studying up of their own accord and not just believing all the rubbish published on the internet. If you follow the academic studies on Marco Polo all the way through and check out the most recent articles published in the respected Journals (this is where all the most avant-garde theories are published for the international academic readership), you can find for yourself that there is little merit in believing that Marco Polo was ethnically Croatian.
There is a lot of evidence that shows he was born on the island of Korcula, that is fair enough. But that does not qualify as evidence in and of itself that Marco Polo was an ethnic "Croatian" (then the next question arises, where one would essentially need to define what a "Croatian" was at that time and is now in relation to the "Croatians" of that time). As I've stated earlier, the fact that people of a particular surname occur on a very small island (and only a very small number of these people exist on the island), this does not qualify as evidence that all people with these surnames are from that location.
There are a very high number of people with the surname Paoli and Paolo (variants of Polo in fact) on the island of Corsica (France). In fact there are more people with the surname Polo or variants of it on Corsica (France) than there are on Korcula (Croatia). But that does not mean that Marco Polo was Corsican.
In the end it is your prerogative to believe whatever it is you want to convince yourself of. The conversation is pointless in that most people who subscribe to a right-wing, racist viewpoint are more than likely going to be extremely difficult to have a decent conversation with that has academic integrity. I am not suggesting that you are in any way a right-wing thinker. What I am saying is that you have been easily persuaded by people who have an agenda which is in line with these types. It is saddening to see more and more young Slavs from the Balkans believing the writings of completely unqualified people who expound the most pseudohistorical of theories. In future, take a good look at the those sites you quoted. Then look at the reasons behind why these sites exist and who the people are that operate behind the scenes. These are not true Croatian scholars, they are an embarrasment to every respectable Croatian I have ever met. Euganeo 00:28, 19 April 2006 (UTC)
I'm sorry to tell you, but:
- "Marco Polo is said to be born in Korcula (most people agree)"
- "The island at the time o--Giovanni Giove 14:39, 12 July 2006 (UTC)f his birth was mostly Dalmatian Croatian settled (most ppl agree)."
You can't say that "most people agree" because this is not true. There is no consensus and most of the people who agree usually have a strong Croatian national POV. GhePeU 09:19, 19 April 2006 (UTC)
- Thank you for reinforcing one of my main points, GhePeU. I fear that people such as show themselves for what they are. "Viva Forza Italia" he says... Well, Evergreen, it's absolutely not surprising that you support a centre-right party in coalition with a separatist league.
- Furthermore, I think that it is pretty obvious to everyone that this discussion with is absolutely pointless. Your arguments and comments are childish and waste everyone's time. You treat the Wikipedia as though it is some sort of internet chat room.
- As I said before and I reiterate once again: In the end it is your prerogative to believe whatever it is you want to convince yourself of. - Euganeo 23:34, 23 April 2006 (UTC)
Attention: [[User_talk:|Evergreen]] known for previously vandalising the Marco Polo discussion page
Attention: Please note that the above discussion (under both titles, The "Polo" Surname and To Euganeo) was between myself Euganeo and the anonymous vandalEvergreen (Evergreen Montenegro1). He appears to have a history of vandalising the Marco Polo page and other pages. He has recently completely deleted all the comments that I have made and all the work I have put into carefully discussing this matter in a reasonable academic fashion. Other users have made attempts to reinstate the material that [[User_talk:|Evergreen]] has been deleting.
It was an extremely difficult and time consuming effort done by various wiki Admin and users to reinstate the original comments. Evergreen then proceeded to delete only his own messages.
After this (Evergreen Montenegro1)has insisted on baiting me into another argument with his pseudohistorical comments and his insults. Evergreen makes a habit of refusing to sign on with a proper account with Wikipedia and continually hides behind the veil of his IP address (Evergreen Montenegro1). I had attempted to come to some sort of a truce with Evergreen whereby he would leave my comments alone and stop deleting them and he would be free to delete only his own comments.
If anyone wants to see the original comments that were made and the strange manner in which Evergreen has been behaving, please look at the History tab above to see a log of all the edits he has made. This is vandalism. You are not meant to delete another User's comments. He had deleted all of my comments in discussion with him. This is unethical and makes it look as though he has something to hide. Why is he trying to cover his tracks and silence me?
Please take note of the following links and warnings against him to cease otherwise he will be blocked. Take note also of the history on his IP discussion page (as he has not registered with Wikipedia) at this (Evergreen Montenegro1). He has deleted all the other User's comments on his talk page to hide that he has been warned before. New warnings have been posted by other Users since Evergreen has continued to expound his nationalistic Croatian ideologies on the Wikipedia.
Vandals will not be tolerated on Wikipedia. Please inform yourselves by checking out the Wikipedia Blocking Policy.
Furthmore, pseudohistorical and jingoisitic agenda-driven POV postings and arguments are to be kept in the discussion area. But to be devoid of insults and petty bickering. In the past I have attempted to discuss this in a civil manner with Evergreen but this has been to no avail. Please be warned of the activities and subversive agenda behind any interaction you may have with Evergreen. He is essentially a vandal but also a proponent of pseudohistorical theories which he wishes to enforce on others via intimidation. Euganeo 00:55, 15 May 2006 (UTC)
(Evergreen Montenegro1), you have insisted upon vandalising this page continuously. You have spent numerous amounts of history edits to ensure that your vandalism is perpetuated. I do not care about your POV or your pseudohistorical arguments. Your agenda is well known to everyone that has been trying to stop you vandalising the Wikipedia.
- You have accused me of deleting your posts and I never have deleted any of your posts. They have been deleted by other Admin and WikiUsers who are attempted to stop you flooding the discussion board.
- You posted an essay on the discussion board. It was deleted by someone else. Not me. Look at the history before you make defamatory accusations.
- You insist I delete the Attention post above. I will only delete it once you stop vandalising the site and leave the Wikipedia alone.
- You must sign your postings correctly and stop deleting the "unsigned" markers that are put to your posts. These are put there to ensure in all fairness that everyone knows who is posting what without having to search through the Wiki history pages.
Euganeo 03:46, 19 May 2006 (UTC)
- Thanks, I'll start cleaning up this page as soon as I get a chance. Take care Euganeo 05:31, 31 May 2006 (UTC)
Pseudohistory, just for the amusement sake
plese read, the view is backed by non Croat sources Evergreen Montenegro1 03:29, 13 June 2006 (UTC)
POLO-PILIC, MARCO Croatian Adventurer
The Marco Polo Coat of Arms includes four chickens. In Italian, Polo means chicken or fowl; in Croatian Pilich means chicks or chickens. Accident or coincidence? The Arms are registered in Dalmatia.
Henry S. Hart in his book, Venetian Adventurer: Marco Polo, states, "These merchants were Maffeo and Nicolo Polo, sons of one Marco Polo, a descendant of an old Dalmatian Family which had come from Sibenik, Dalmatia, and settled in Venice in the 11th Century." Hart goes on to say, "The crews of the Venetian ships were freemen, so many of them Slavonians (Croatians) from the Dalmatian Coast that the long dock by St. Mark's Square was and is known as the Riva degli Schiavoni (Slavonian-Croatian)." Marko Polo was the greatest explorer of all time. More significant than Columbus, he opened to Europe all of Asia, including China, which in turn prompted the discovery of America. Marco Polo had a home on the Island of Korcula in Dalmatia, then a shipbuilding and merchant center of Dalmatia. The merchant and the noble class in Dalmatia did use two names, one Latin-Italian as citizens of Venice and their own Croatian name in their own circles. Bogdanich became Bogdaneo, Mladinich-Mladineo, Arnerich-Arneri and Glavinich-Capogrosso. Some simply used the Latin-Italian meaning of their name, such as Cvietkovich-Florio, Lupis-Vukasinovich or Polo-Pilich.
Genealogy The most prominent researcher and historian of Marco Polo, Sir Henry Yule, In his book Ser Marco Polo 1903, John Murray, London drew a genealogical chart of the Polo Families on pages 5O6-507. Marco's daughter, Moreta, married Dolfln; daughter, Fantina, married Bragadin. Vinko lvancevic in his article "Stone Carved Coats of Arms on Korcula" in Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences, No. 381-1978 has the Illustrated Coats of Arms of Dolfin and Bragadin. On the same, the wife of Marino Gradenigo chooses as her executors, "My mother Dona and my uncle (Barba) Ser Marco Polo." Gradenigo Coats of Arms are also carved in stone on Korcula. She also used the term Barba for uncle, this is Dalmatian dialect for uncle. Zio means uncle In Italian. Bragadin is cited on page 125 In History of Medieval Croatia by Guidescu as a Croatian. Marco's genealogy also listed a brother married to a Sagredo-this Sagredo is registered in the Dalmatian nobility and states In German: "Welches aus Sebenico stammt" or originated in Sibenik. It is significant in his genealogy the association with Korcula and Dalmatia. The Croatian Census of Population for 1948 lists DEPOLO (De-of Polo) on the Island of Korcula with 40 individuals in 15 families and the city of Drnis, Dalmatia approximately 20 kilometers from Sibenik (the origins of Polo) has over 25 families with more than 130 individuals named PILICH. Polo is found in only two families far to the north. Courtesy of the Croatian Genealogical and Heraldic Society.
As per discussion on the Usenet groups:
From: Geos - view profile Date: Tues, Nov 2 2004 4:03 pm Email: "Geos" <no.s...@libero.it> Groups: soc.culture.croatia, it.politica, it.cultura.storia
"Finellach" <krunoslav.raki...@hi.htnet.hr> ha scritto nel messaggio news:email@example.com...
> Geos wrote: > > Tell me, my friend, is this the "theory", you are talking about? > > http://www.ikorcula.net/marcopolo/Pilic_Polo_Marko.htm > Yes.
Well, the first think is that chicken in italian is pollo and not "polo". Polo is a Venitian word for "Paul". This simple evidence breaks one of the bases of your theory.
- Oh this is just excellent. And the word pilich in Croatian has Turkish origins. Does this make Marco Polo Turkish? Way to go. 188.8.131.52 10:09, 22 October 2006 (UTC)
--Purger 13:54, 7 June 2006 (UTC)
The skeptic side is somewhat overplayed in this article, IMHO. The simplest explanation for Marco's omissions is that, as he is said to have said, "he just didn't tell even half of what he saw". Also: chopsticks may be a notable feature of Chinese culture for modern restaurant-goers, but for someone like Marco (who, like europeans of the time, ate with his hands) it probably seemed an insignificant detail, especially compared to things like armies and money, and the much stranger things that he did report. Ditto for writing -- to Marco, who apparently was illiterate, Chinese writing would not have seem any different than Greek, Hebrew, or Arabic, which were no news to his Venetian audience. As for Chinese foot-binding, it may not have been a pervasive custom, or (being a strictly private familiar thing) it may have been outside of his sight. Finally, one should note that Marco visited the court of a Mongol ruler 800 years ago, so one shoudl not assume that the customs he met there were the same as those of the Han dinasties 300 years later. (Think how much Europe changed in 300 years). And as for the "careful record keeping": even if we assume that he was as important to the Khan as he claimed, he still was probably one among thousands of courtiers and foreign merchants in Kublai's court. Anyway, c'mon, there are more important things about this subject than "Croatian vs. Venetian" or the skeptics viewpoint...Jorge Stolfi 19:59, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Marco Polo doubting Thomas'
In the article for Marco Polo, I would like to add a topic in response to the section questioning the validity of Marco Polo's story.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Polo#Did_the_trip_really_take_place.3F)
(quoting from the article)
"While most historians believe that Marco Polo did indeed reach China, in recent times some have proposed that he did not get that far, and only retold information he had heard from others. Those skeptics point out that, among other omissions, his account fails to mention Chinese writing, chopsticks, tea, foot binding, or the Great Wall. Also, Chinese records of the time do not mention him, despite the fact that he claimed to have served as a special emissary for Kublai Khan—which is puzzling, given the careful record-keeping in China at that time."
In response to these arguments I would like to add a topic to link off of this:
[Keep in mind, that Marco Polo arrived to China when it was under Mongol rule (specifically Kublai Khan). What would later become Beijing had just been sacked and destroyed (and was rebuilt as the new Mongol capital of Khanbaliq. This would have been akin to discoverying Japan for the first time right after it was hit with a nuclear bomb in 1945. Must've given off some strange impressions. Then too, Mongol invasion of Europe was imminent, and expeditions of this type would have been valued as much for its intelligence as it was for its material interest. Still, given these circumstances, Marco painted an intriguing picture of medieval China to what was then Dark Age Europe.]
Great Wall of China- although the original Great Wall was started in the Qin dynasty, the bulk of the Great Wall as seen today was created during the Ming Dynasty; long after Marco Polo's journeys there. At the time, the walls may not have been impressive enough to warrant "Great Wonder" status, and may not have been that different from other great barriers constructed throughout the Classical and Ancient world (like Hadrian's wall). Plus, the Great Wall was meant to keep the Mongols out; not something the occupiers (Mongols) would entertain outsiders with [It would be like the Allies turning the Atlantic Sea Wall of WWII into a historical monument. It should be noted that all of the Great Wonders of the Classical World were destroyed except for the Pyramids of Giza whose mere size was its defense. A military fortification at that time, even a major one like the Great Wall, may not have been reason enough to present as a national treasure.]
Tea - because no records state exactly when tea became popular and mainstream throughout China, it is quite possible Marco did not have any in his time there [amazing to think of a time in China when tea was not in every household, but there must have existed a time- why not later]. Also, tea may not have been part of the Mongol's custom, and thus never offered it to Marco Polo. Finally, tea may have still been in its infancy- perhaps just leaves in water; and not have developed its distinct taste that fueled future wars over.
Foot binding- as strange and exotic as this idea may be to westerners now, this may not been a topic that either the Mongols or Marco Polo cared to talk about. It was a practice done to young Chinese girls, and may just have never entered the conversation when Marco met with the Khan leaders. It also may have been seen by Marco and just not noteworthy enough for him to mention.
Chinese writing- it is almost definite that Marco saw Chinese writing in his travels there; although in medieval China, the writing was most probably only for scribes, and business and government documents. Similar to Europe, only the educated needed to read at this time, and most people probably got around fine without it. [There were not signs over every store and restaurant like the modern world, and few newspapers if any]. There is also the complexity of Chinese characters which is surely why Marco did not learn the language.
Chopsticks- of all the items noted that Marco Polo neglected to write on, this is actually the most notable since it definitely existed and was used at the time, and it is noteworthy enough to describe considering how different it is to western utensils. However, it could be that the Mongols did not adopt this practice and used common or similar utensils as westerners; unlike the Chinese.
(quoting from the article)
"On his deathbed, a priest begged Marco to confess that he had lied in his stories. Marco refused, insisting, 'I have not told half of what I saw!'
Although his deathbed remarks may not be true, it is entirely possible Marco did not talk about much of what he saw in his travels. As two different cultures as they could be, maybe he just did not remember to write everything in his book Il Milione. The original, itself, did not survive and may also include lost writings not included in the translations.
Another defense to Marco Polo's journey is that the only arguments that discredit it are what he missed describing: chopsticks, foot binding, writing, etc. There are no arguments whether anything he said was factually wrong. Meaning, that if he did lie and make up the story he was highly accurate in describing it. Given an entire book on it, it seems impossible he could have been accurate about making it all up by coincidence. Perhaps the original source of the criticisms at the time did not entirely trust him because he may have been known to exaggerate stories. His critics may have also been jealous or competitors. In his defense, even if he did exaggerate, the subject was more interesting than his story. --Acefox 20:37, 1 Jun 2005 (UTC)
I have just reverted a piece of vandalism on the article. 21:46, 21 October 2005 184.108.40.206
- Evergreen insists on vandalising this page, please be wary. He has been deleting my postings and those of others where-ever unsigned IP notices have been placed. This is to cover a lengthy history of vandalism he has perpetrated on this dicussion page and others. Check out the discussion section on Evergreen to see previous warnings he has been issued. Checking the history there will also reveal previous warnings by users which he has deleted.
Euganeo 04:57, 22 May 2006 (UTC)
- Apologies to User:220.127.116.11, a vandal has deleted you post and I have reposted it for you here. The vandal is the one I've mentioned above who will not stop destroying this page. See: Evergreen for details.
- Euganeo 01:30, 24 May 2006 (UTC)
- I cannot delete the above discussion under "Vandalism" because it is a valid topic started by another user. As Wiki Admin have pointed out, all comments must stay here and this includes warnings and so on. Take care (and please stop deleting other User's comments) Euganeo 23:07, 30 May 2006 (UTC)
Benjamin Colbert states in his introduction to the Wordsworth edition of "The travels.." (ISBN 1-85326-473-3) that "To some, Polo earned the nickname of Il Millione, Marco 'Million', and a reputation for exaggeration, or worse, as a teller of tall tales." This text also mentions nothing about the book having the name Il Milione or that the name derives from Marco's family name. Can someone provide a source for the statement here that "His travels are written down in Il Milione ("The Milione", from Polo's family nickname Emilione, or The Travels of Marco Polo)." Seabhcán 20:08, 19 May 2005 (UTC)
This hypothesis is now accepted by many Italin scholars and was first proposed by L.F. Benedetto.
Bibliography: Benedetto, L.F., "Perché fu chiamato Milione il libro di Marco Polo", in «Il Marzocco», Firenze, 14 Settembre 1930 and "Ancora del nome Milione", in «Il Marzocco», Firenze, 16 novembre 1930, cited in Zorzi, Alvise, "Vita di Marco Polo veneziano", Rusconi Editore, Milano, dicembre 1982. GhePeU 13:50, 31 May 2005 (UTC)
please keep deleted
I was actually searching for the game Marco Polo that's played in swimming pools... shouldn't this topic be split in two?
- The name Marco Polo was also given to a children's game (Marco Polo). Mark1 7 July 2005 03:58 (UTC)
Spice trade has been nominated to be improved by Wikipedia:This week's improvement drive. Come and support the article with your vote!--Fenice 06:08, 10 August 2005 (UTC)
Marco Polo's book
Does a translated version of his book "Descriptions of the world" exist online? no
There's one at http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/10636Piamero 15:57, 25 February 2007 (UTC)
PBS program reference
- Feiler, Bruce. "Walking the Bible" - PBSHDTV program, March 25, 2006. Bruce Feiler, author of Walking the Bible (book) (ISBN 0380807319) is shown in a tv program of the same name. He goes into an internet cafe to research information about Mount Ararat in connection to Noah's Ark. Video of Wikipedia's entry on Marco Polo is shown while Feiler's voice over explains that Marco Polo visited Mount Ararat in 1254. The on-screen video of the Wikipedia article is not making that claim however, it is showing that Marco Polo was born in 1254. The Marco Polo article does not even mention Mount Ararat directly, though it does mention that Marco Polo traveled in the general area of the mountain.
The proof of Dalmatian origin
A 14th century document linking Marco Polo with Dalmatia
A copy of the 14th century British Museum Additional MS 12475 linking Marco Polo with Dalmatia. Line against shield with 4 birds "(P)olo, questi veneron orrigamente de dalmatia". Polo, this man originally came from Dalmatia.
Document is presented to the Marco Polo Centre Korcula - Croatia on Sept. 7th 1998 by James A. Gilman on behalf of Europa-Youth Evergreen Montenegro1 03:28, 31 May 2006 (UTC) DONE
- I'll merge this post into two (or three) separate discussion topics just for Evergreen Montenegro1 and I as per our private discussions on User_talk:Euganeo. Thanks Evergreen. Euganeo 05:31, 31 May 2006 (UTC)
Marco Polo(c. 1254-1324), Italian traveller and author, whose writings gave Europeans the first authoritative view of life in the Far East. Polo was probably born in Venice, although he may have been born in Venetian Dalmatia on the island of Curzola (now Korčula), off the Croatian coast, where his family originated. His father Nicolò and uncle Maffeo were Venetian merchants and business partners who had commercial interests in Constantinople (now İstanbul) and the Crimea. .Read More
Please note above is cut and paste from the net, unbias view. Evergreen Evergreen Montenegro 03:48, 29 May 2006 (UTC)
I also feel that sceptical side is overplayed in the article. Few researchers doubt it.
Lack of mention of Marco Polo in Chinese documents suggests that Polo family over-played their role and had no significant position in Khan's court.
In "travels' it is also evident that Polo was usually an outsider to customs of many countries he visited. He likely had little insight into everyday life of Chinese, which may explain no mention of e.g. tea.
He is also very detailed on certain topics and omits others, apparently his personal interests. Decriptions of trade goods and game animals and birds of Asia are accurate and first-class.
Scapegoat for chinese claimers=
When Marco Polo was 35 his dad returned. --Leo 07:28, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
China is the source of many of the world's great inventions, including the Four Great Inventions of ancient China: Paper, the compass, gunpowder, and printing. Other wonderful things first discovered/used/promoted/... by Chinese:
and much more!....
- is gunpowder really that great an invention? Papadilos 17:57, 9 September 2007 (UTC)
- Offcourse it is. Gunpowder greatly changed warfare and made alot of new inventions possible. 18.104.22.168 (talk) 22:18, 15 January 2008 (UTC)
I have been asked by supporter of Curzola theory to see article and give comments. Because nationality is very important about this article I will only say that I live in Croatia and read Italian language.
Reason for writing POV tag in article is that wikipedia must be neutral ! This article is not neutral in birth controversy because there are written arguments for Curzola and Venice theory and criticism of Curzola theory. When in article it will be written criticism of Venice theory then POV tag will not be needed anymore. About other stuff there is all in all 2 questions. Where is Marco Polo born and if he is born in Curzola what has been his nationality. I want only to say that this are 2 separated questions !!
My last comment is about Marco Polo picture. Under picture is written that he is born in Venice but this is disputed. In my thinking it will be more honest, neutral that it is written that Marco Polo is born in Republic of Venice until Curzola-Venice problem is not solved. --Rjecina 16:20, 26 October 2007 (UTC)
- provide to write Venice criticism, if you can.
- The question of the ethnicity is properly presented, and is connected with the birthplace dispute.
- the "under picture" is based on the Christopher Columbus' article, that has similar problems.--Giovanni Giove 16:43, 26 October 2007 (UTC)
- This is only answer on comment from my discussion page of deleting POV tag. Wikipedia need to be neutral because of what is not possible to write 2 thinking and then attack only one. POV tag is staying because of article structure. I do not know about Marco Polo enough to edit article so I will not edit. You users which are making edit wars need to find compromise solution which is not POV. If you have agreement you can delete Curzola theory from article but you need to have agreement. On other side few argument written in part Criticism of the Curzola theory are for me if nothing else stupid but if I delete I will enter edit war and I do not want that ! --Rjecina 05:08, 30 October 2007 (UTC)
- If you critic the theory claiming that pyramids were built by E.T., you do not need to critic the "Pharaon theory". Do you get the concept? Let's say that Venice is a "well sourced" theory. Anybody is free to add the proper critics in any moment, but this is not a "must". Regards.--Giovanni Giove 08:53, 30 October 2007 (UTC)
you made a mistake!
Marco Polo was an Italian merchant not a Venetian trader.
no he wasnt
tyler snyder is the filthiest wrestler ever!!! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 22.214.171.124 (talk) 20:08, 8 November 2007 (UTC)
Was he Croatian???
Marco Polo (1254 ? - 1324) was a famous explorer, who opened Europe to Asia, including China. Henry S. Hart in his book "Venetian Adventurer: Marco Polo" (Oklahoma, 1967) states that Marco Polo was "a descendant of an old Dalmatian family which had come from Sibenik, Dalmatia, and settled in Venice in the 11th Century." Hart then goes on to say, "The crews of the Venetian ships were freemen, so many of them Slavonians (Croatians) from the Dalmatian Coast, that the long quay by St. Mark's was and is known as Riva degli Sciavoni (Slavonian = Croatian)." Marco Polo was buried in a Slavic quarter in Venice, near the Riva degli Sciavoni (or "Riva od Hrvatov", according to Croatian sources). Especially important is Marco Polo's Coat of Arms which includes four chickens. In Italian, Polo means chicken or fowl (written as pollo in Italian). In Croatian Pilich means chicks or chickens. Accidnet or coincidence? This is a question raised by dr Adam Eterovic, distinguished expert in Croatian heraldry.
As indicated by dr Eterovic, the merchant and the noble class in Dalmatia did use two names, one Latin-Italian as citizens of Vencie, and their own Slavic name in their own circles. Bogdanich became Bogdaneo, Mladinich - Mladineo, Arnerich - Arneri, Glavinich - Capogrosso. Some simply used the Latin - Italian meaning of their name, such as Cvietkovich - Florio or Fiorini, Vukasinovich - Lupich, Pilich - Polo, etc.
The Croatian Census of Population for 1948 lists DEPOLO on the Island of Korcula with 40 individuals in 15 families. Also the City of Drnis near Sibenik has over 25 families with more than 130 individuals named Pilich. How about Croatian Marco Polo?
A British historian James A. Gilman founded "The Institute of Marco Polo" on the island of Korcula, believing that this was the place where he had been born. See [Gregory Peroche], p. 49.
I would like to thank Adam Eterovich for permission to use material from his publications as well as for personal communication.
Sources and commentaries (see Eterovich's booklet for more details):
Genealogie de Nobili Veneti, Brit. Museum, Ms. 1155, 1679: "Polo clan originated in Sibenik, 1033" Biografia Universal Antica e Moderna, 1878, Venice: "Polo family came from Dalmatia" Dizionario Universal di Geografia, Storia e Biografia, 1878, Milano: "Marco came from Dalmatia" Dolcetti Giovanni; Il Libre D'Argent delle Famiglie Venete, Nobili Cittadine e Popolani, 1922, Venice: "Polo origins from Sibenik in 1033" Ida von Dueringsfeld; Aus Dalmatien, 1875: "Marco born on Korcula" Giovanna Monticola; La Vita Dal Dogi, 1900, Citta di Castelo: "Polo of Dalmatia became nobility in 1381" La Vita Dal Dogi, 1522, Venice: "Polo family came from Dalmatia" Storia Universal Italiana, 1878, Milano: "Polo family came from Dalmatia" Jules Verne; Viaggi di Marco Polo, 1884, Milano: "Polo family came from Dalmatia" Sir Henry Yule; The Book of Sir Marco Polo, 1903, London: "Polo originated in Sibenik in 1033 sources Evergreen Montenegro1 23:23, 23 October 2006 (UTC)
- You know perfectly well how to register an account here. It is easier than editing text. You have deleted my posts again!!! Why do you insist on deleting all my posts? This has been going on for too long. You insist on deleting other people's posts and you have been getting away with it since June 2005. It is clearly visible in your personal history. How many times to I have to ask you to stop ruining my edits. You just can't go around deleting people's stuff. I have tried to reason with you. But you deleted my posts again!! Stop vandalising. Euganeo 03:52, 26 May 2006 (UTC)
- That is ridiculous. As I stated in my posts if you read them clearly before you started deleting them, I clearly stated that I am fully aware of the Italianisations of surnames in the various colonies founded by the Venetians, the Genoese, etc. I clearly pointed out the changes to such surnames as the Kalergis nobel (Orthodox Greeks from Crete) family who started spelling the name Calergi. However, it was widely known that they were Greek. It was merely a method of spelling their surname utilising the Italian manner of lexiconographic association and retaining orthographic standardisation. I have studied the history of the Venetian Republic extensively. If you read my posts carefully you will realise that I am aware of all these things. My main point is that all this evidence that you have is pseudohistorical. Furthermore, there are a number of cities in Istria for example which were depopulated in the 16th century and then re-populated by nobel Greeks from the various islands under Venetian influence. Many of these people Italianised their Greek surnames and continued on living in Istria for many centuries. And yet this does not mean that all Istrians in those cities are of Greek descent, however the likelihood is much higher because of the history of those cities. I have discussed this all before. Discussions with a vandal such as yourself are a waste of time.
- If you look at your own page you have been warned two more times by Wiki Admin to stop vandalising!
- Euganeo 23:57, 24 May 2006 (UTC)
According to dr Filippi
:::: Please note that Dr. Živan Filippi is actually of Slavic descent, his surname is an Italianised version of Filipec. His ideas and theories are considered pseudohistorical and serving a particular pro-nationalist Croatian agenda. He is not regarded by both Croatian and Italian scholars as having merit. Euganeo 02:04, 24 May 2006 (UTC)
'(Italian writer)- Marko Polo and Korcula by dr. Zivan Filippi Korcula and the Polo Family
The 13th century was the time when Europe lived in constant conflict between its town-states, which were still preoccupied with the Crusades. It was a time when numerous armies were crossing European soil, destroying foreign towns and killing off their inhabitants. This was a time of poor living conditions, when food and clothing were lacking, and when European inhabitants did not know much about raw materials and agricultural skills. They had no knowledge of coal, oil, paper, gunpowder, compasses, coffee, potatoes, corn, tomatoes, tabacco...all the things without which the life of contemporary man would seem inconceivable.
But while political instability and economic poverty were limiting the life of the average European, reducing it to pure survival, the stability of the Roman Catholic Church - in spite of all dynastic struggles and doctrinarian rigidity, often with perilous consequences - at the same time opened to him spiritual perspectives, giving hope and laying down the structural base for cultural development. This was the time of the most splendid Gothic building, as for example the cathedral of Chartres, begun in 1294; of Reims in 1210; of Salisbury, erected in 1220. One of the most significant political events was the proclamation of Rudolf for Holy Roman Emperor, who managed to spread the influence of the Habsburgs to Austria, thus laying the foundations of the state which would, for the next five centuries, represent the bulwark of European culture.
In that interplay - of the material and the spiritual, of violence and reconciliation, a mixture of awareness and dream - an unique position was to be held by that small Italian town-state, called Venice. Built on an island archipelago, near the mainland, it looked like an enchanted vision which emerging like Aphrodite from the Adriatic Sea. But Venice was not an apparition. Built in stone in the magnificent style of the Middle Ages with emphasized Byzantine elements and connected by a network of channels and bridges, it manifested the power of a trading and maritime force, spreading its influence across the Adriatic aquatic surface, and over to the Mediterranean as far as Constantinople itself, which fell into its hands in 1202.
The town and island of Korcula was unprotected, and indeed there were many who fought for it at that time because of its strategic position on the maritime trade routes and also because of its geographical configuration which makes it ideal for the refuge of war ships and merchant galleys. For these reasons Korcula was unlikely to escape the powerful arm of Venice. The Croat population of the island and the town of Korcula tried hard to resist the intensions of the Venetian Republic. In order to hinder Venitian plans and protect their island community, the Korculans adopted their communal statute in 1214. That statute, the oldest legal document in this part of Europe, codified the whole life of the town and the island and, in many of its decrees, set an example of the European proportions. Numerous decrees regarding maritime law, the abolition of slavery, the protection of the environment etc. witness to a high political and cultural level in Korcula at that time; though it was living as were other Dalmatian towns in the 13th century as well, in the danger due to the avaricious appetites of the powerful forces around it. The Korcula statute protected Korcula from the authoritarian reign of Venice, but at the same time offered Korcula Venetian protection from other possible aggressors as it wanted to continue its relative prosperity, especially in shipbuilding, stone-cutting and shipping. The citizen of Korcula, though under the yoke and protection of Venice could guard his rights and his lifestyle from the outside world because of the legal codex, but he wished to look beyond the borders and the limits of western metaphysics and he he began to broader his aspirations to take in the outside world, for the fulfilment of his dream regarding a better future. His sailing ships ventured in search of the unknown and, by reason of their masculine violence ploughed the Mediterranean furrows, whereas the citizen himself remained in the secure maternal womb of his city nucleus and his peasant field. Sea furrow, field furrow, and a furrow as the line of his writing, welded in the Korcula statute, spelt for the Korcula citizen the chance of a wondrous joy of existence.
Amidst the overall risks of the European insecurity, Korcula, either by force or willingly, accepts the previous duke of Dubrovnik, Marsilie Zorzi, a Venetian nobleman, as its duke in 1254. In that same year Marko Polo was born.
The Polo family is much respected in Korcula; living overr centuries in the town of Korcula. It produced over the years numerous shipbuilders, smiths, stone-masons, tradesmen, priests, and public notaries. Marko's father Nikola and uncle Mate founded their trading outpost in Korcula, and the members of the Polo family were guardians of the walls around the town of Korcula. But, for the skilful tradesmen Nikola and Mate, Korcula was only the starting point of their business trade and their adventurous life. Marko's father and uncle penetrated deeply into Asia. They erected a tower and founded their own trading outpost in the town of Sudac on the Crimea. They had their main trade centre in Constantinople, to which many Korcula businessmen and shipbuilders were travelling and for some time they were living there. Mate and Nikola Polo traded successfully with the Persians. They were cognisant with the secret ways which led through Syria and Iraq as far as the coasts of Persian Gulf. They also knew the areas where the precious pearl oysters could be found. Wherever they ventured they were made welcome as people who were "noble-minded, wise and reasonable". They knew the routes that led to the fur traders of southern Siberia. They had trade contacts with the dignitaries of various Tartar peoples, and they reached the court of the Great Kublai Khan in China. They had started their journey before Marko Polo was born. The successful Korcula tradesmen feeling secure in their centuries-old native soil of Korcula, left their family and still unborn son Marko, as they gazed towards the Far East searching there for a realization of their dream of the rich life. Their ideas of fusing the cultural structures of the West and the East also decreed the destiny of Nikola's son, Marko Polo, from the day of his birth.
Marko achieved the usual education of a young nobleman of his age. He learned a lot about classical writers, he understood the text of the Bible and knew the basic theology of the Roman Catholic Church. He spoke French and Italian, especially the trade vocabulary, and was skilful in keeping business books. The Church books and songs in Croatian from Marko's time have been preserved in Korcula, and it is most probable that Marko knew the Croatian language as spoken by the inhabitants of Korcula. That knowledge was to help him very much when he traveled with his father and uncle across south Russia, then inhabited by Slavonic tribes and under Tartar reign. The European languages which Marko learned in his youth were to be the basis for the development of his polyglot talents when he came in touch, in the Far East, with Chinese; this, too, he learned successfully.
Korcula first had a bishop in 1300, which contributed a great deal to the writing and maintenance of the archives, both Church and secular, and some well-known families kept their own archives. Thus, the always rich Korcula tradition passed on by word of mouth, received also written support for the preservation of the collective communal memory, thus giving birth to capable men ready for the adventures of body and spirit in distant worlds.
The oldest written document in which the Polo family is mentioned is a deed of gift dated March 14th 1400. The then duke of Korcula, Mihajlo Musi and three Korcula judges donated to a certain Joannis a building in the town quarter on the eastern side, near the house of Bogavaz Dupolo. It is the exact location of the present "tower of Marko Polo"; from which one can see clearly all the Peljesac Channel; the route of trading vessels from Hellenic times to the present day.
A somewhat older document, from 1430, speaks about the life and work of members of the Polo family in Korcula in the 13th century, mostly featuring the centuries-old tradition of building Korcula style wooden boats, well known in the whole of the Mediterranean. That document is to be found in the private archives of the Kapor family in Korcula. In this, Mate Polo applies to the community of Korcula for a piece of land for his ship-yard, near the place where his grandfathers were building boats. That document is concrete evidence that the Polos were living in Korcula and building the boats even before Marko Polo was alive. Korcula shipyards were situated both on the eastern and western shores adjacent to the fortified medieval town. In this a way, the shipbuilders, working in the vicinity of the city walls, and living inside them, were able to defend their town in case of enemy attack. In the list mentioning ship-builders in 1594, there are 16 ship-wrights from the Polo family, and in the 1810 list, 22. From a legal case of 1778, we learn that the name of the owner of a shipyard in the eastern suburb was Marko Depolo. As the skills of ship-building, as well as the ownership of the shipyards, were passing from generation to generation, from father to son, various families were for centuries using the same plots for the needs of their workshops. It is evident from the land-registry maps of the past century, and from photos exhibited in the City Museum that Mihovil Depolo, Nikola's son, (1864-1943) was the owner of one of the bigger shipyards on the eastern side ("Borak"), and that Lovro Depolo (1853-1943) was the owner of the biggest shipyard of all on the western side of the town of Korcula ("Sv. Nikola").
The Korculans were not only outstanding ship-builders but also experienced seamen. They excelled, too, as good warriors in many sea battles; among them, members of the Depolo family. Archive material and memorials confirm that the duke of Korcula, Andrea Zane, in 1584, entrusted, among others, Jerolim, Pavle and Nikola Polo, with finding crews for the participation of the town of Korcula in one of the sea battles.
Archive material concerning Korcula reveals also the rich religious life of the Korcul people especially notable in the founding and regular activities of the brotherhoods. These offered, to the various groups belonging to specific crafts, a spiritual refuge and place of relaxation from every day hard work. Like others, the Polos lived an intensive religious life. Bishop of Vinzenza, Mihovil Priuli issued a charter on January 28 1603, for the founding of the brotherhood of St. Michael (Sveti Mihovil). Among the founders, were listed the names of Pavle, Marko, Jakov, sons of Dominik De-Polo, and Vicko and Ivan, sons of Nikola De-Polo. The name of the Franciscan procurator (representative), Marko de Polo, was inscribed on the apple of the silver carrying cross belonging to the Franciscan monastery founded on the island of Badija, near Korcula. The cross was the work of the Sibenik goldsmith, Dobrosevic, whose name was also inscribed on it. The alter painting of St. Ann in the church of All Saints, dating from the beginning of the 17th century, reveals in the text at its base that the painting was the gift of Vinzentie de Polo, presbyter Marko de Polo, and others.
If we walk through the cemetery of Korcula we can see numerous tombs of the Depolo family, dating from the founding of the cemetery to the present day. Outstanding for its beauty is the family vault of Nikola and Rosa Depolo from 1891.
The surname Polo derives from the name Pavao. It was first mentioned in its Croatian form Paulovic (Pavlovic), then in the Latin form De Paulis, Venetian Di Polo, and afterwards remained only Depolo. The earliest mentioned medieval Identification System was the first name and, beside it, the additions, which specified the particular person, differentiating it from others of the same name. The surname appeared only when one of the additions to the name became hereditary. The confirmation of this rule, and that in the case when the surname Polo derives from the name Paulus (Pavao), is found in the following example. The public notary, Jakov Giricic, drew up a will for the ship-builder Paulus (Pavao) in Korcula on February 1st 1565. His surname is not mentioned, only his first name. The original of that will is now kept in the Historical Museum in Dubrovnik. It is evident from other documents written after the said will (contracts, wills and registers) that the sons of the testator now bear the permanent surname, De Paulis. The grandson of the will-maker, Nikola, bears the surname Di Paulo, and the great grandsons, Ivan and Vicko, whom we find among the founders of the brotherhood of St. Michael, bear the surname De Polo.
A frequent use of the surname in its Croatian form of Paulovic (Pavlovic) is evident from a review of the registers between the 16th and 18th centuries. It is last time mentioned for the February 2nd 1747 when Margarita, daughter of Ivan Paulovich and Vica Foretich, was born. The form of the surname Depolo became common with the birth of Mihovil, son of Marko and Palma, on June 18th 1771. From that time it has been listed in this form only. There is an interesting case of the brothers Marko and Andrija, of whom each uses another form of the surname. The contract made in 1525, between the Korcula builder, Marko Pavlovic and the Korcula chapter house, states that Marko obliged himself to complete the building of the northern aisle of the cathedral in Korcula. However, he died during the building in 1532, and his brother, the priest Andrija, with the surname De Paulis was proclaimed the tutor of his children.
712 persons with the surname Polo-Depolo were born in the period between 1583 and 1946. Domenego di Polo, god-father at the baptism of Vinzenza Ismaelis on June 26th 1583, appears on the very first page of the first registry of births in Korcula. The most impressive survey of the expansion of the surname Polo-Depolo is the list of priors ("gastaldi") of the brotherhood of St. Roko, founded on August 16th 1575. A review of the archives of Dalmatian town-communities reveals that the members of the Polo family, later Depolo, have lived continuously in the town of Korcula for centuries.
With regard to Italian professional literature, the most frequent opinion is that the Polo family comes from Dalmatia. Such a claim is evidenced in the manuscript chronicle about Venetian history covering the history of Venice from its beginning until 1446, and also in the book Le vite dei dogi (The Lives of the Dukes), published in Venice in 1522. The same thesis is expounded in later Italian literature, as for example in Biografia universale antica e moderna from 1882 and Storia di Venezia from 1848.Evergreen Montenegro1 23:21, 23 October 2006 (UTC)
- Evergreen the Talk:Marco Polo page is not for posting essays!! It is for "discussion", you are not meant to cut and paste large chunks of pseudohistorical essays from the internet. You have make a mockery of the Wikipedia and you have ruined this talk page. Stop vandalising!
- Euganeo 01:22, 24 May 2006 (UTC)
- This is preposterous, you claim that I am User:DakotaKhan and User:Ghepeu???? THat is ridiculous. You are a vandal and many of the Admin know this.
- Euganeo 23:57, 24 May 2006 (UTC)
- Evergreen, stop destroying this page with all your edits. A number of Wiki Admin have warned you time and time again to stop doing this. Your history of vandalism on this page goes back until June 2005 ! Anyone can discover this by checking your History. This is something that you cannot delete! Stop your continual blanking, deleting and vandalising. I tried to discuss this with you in a civil way but you have hurled insults and false accusations at me. I am only User:Euganeo. It is impossible for me to be any of the other users you accuse me of being. They're Admin that I have notified of your vandalism! Stop it, you have destroyed this discussion page. It is an absolute mess. Stop deleting my posts. Stop insulting Users. Delete your own posts and leave the Wikipedia alone! Euganeo 00:18, 25 May 2006 (UTC)
THE HISTORY OF WARNINGS YOU HAVE DELETED Most of these Users and Admin Users have warned you for specifically deleting or vandalising elements of the Talk:Marco Polo page.