Reason 2020 Full Patch Code Archives

Reason 2020 Full Patch Code Archives

Reason 2020 Full Patch Code Archives

Reason 2020 Full Patch Code Archives

Hello Neighbor 2


Game in production

This game is being worked on; it is in Alpha state.

Hello Neighbor 2

  • Current
  • Previous (Hello Guest)

Release Date

The very first version (HG Prototype) - December 20, 2019;

Lastest version of Hello Guest (Alpha 1) - June 13, 2020;
(HN2 Alpha 1) - July 23, 2020
Release - 2021


Eerie Guest Studios (formerly Dynamic Pixels)

Hello Neighbor 2 (also known as Late Night Shift and formerly known as Hello Guest) is an upcoming Stealth Horror Thriller game from the Hello Neighbor series of games. The archive with the prototype game launcher appeared on December 20, 2019 (Hello Guest), but was opened on January 5, 2020. This game was a part of an ARG that tinyBuild hos was held ted. People of the community have come together to solve this ARG, which on the Secret Neighbor Discord server and Twitter. On June 13, 2020, Alpha 1 (HG) released. Later on July 23, 2020 the game was renamed to Hello Neighbor 2, on the same day (HN2 Alpha 1) was realesed.


Hello Neighbor 2 is a Stealth Horror Game where you’re being stalked by a mysterious creature as you try to track down Mr. Peterson (The Neighbor) who has disappeared after the events of the first game. Play against an advanced, self-learning AI that tracks and adapts to your every move.

Self-learning AI

  • AI explores the environment and constantly seeks ways to ambush the player
  • AI watches player navigation patterns and if these seem to be effective, will replicate them
  • AI has a daily routine that gets disrupted by the player: sleeping, eating, cooking, and possibly going into the woods to dig up bags of non-bodies
  • AI will use the same objects as the player, using them for the same purposes. If the player uses a fire extinguisher to get up top, so will the AI.

Open world

  • Explore the Raven Brooks, there are no limitations and players can go anywhere from the beginning of the game. The AI protects its house when the player is trying to break in, and stalks the player when out in the open world.
  • Players have their own stories. Narrative is emergent, depending on how players decide to play the game.
  • The world changes depending on your actions

Sandbox experience

  • Players should find creative solutions to solve the puzzle by combining different items, terrain features and platforming skills
  • Many in-game events are persistent and scheduled in random order, that gives a feeling of a living world. Players may examine each random in-game event to find a different outcome


We play as reporter Quentin, who is investigating the case of missing Mr. Peterson. Traces lead him to a strange house in which the The Guest lives. Through binoculars, we see how he locks up the Neighbor (it turns out that the Neighbor and the Guest are 2 different people), and our task is to open the door to the attic and free Mr. Peterson.

It all depends on the actions of the player. And whatever he does, he will come to one final - he will open the attic and climb into it. And to open it, you need a key and a crowbar.

The key is in the Guest's room, above the boiler. The easiest way to pick it up is to wait for the fire to go out or you can also throw bottles in the fire.

The crowbar is in a room with a gate, to enter which you need to enter the code from the combination lock. It is generated randomly, so you need to put the security camera so that it looks at the combination lock and wait for the Guest to press the buttons. This will be the code to unlock the gate door.

To open the attic, you need to get into it. There are 3 ways to do this:

  1. Rope, It can be found in different places on the map of the game, and there are only a few ropes. The easiest way to find it is to climb on the nest, which is located on the roof of the house to the left of Mr. Peterson's House. In the Guest's room, there is a hole on the ceiling that leads to the roof, go to the long beam and by hanging on it, jump into the attic.
  1. Generator and wire, they can be found on the roof of the gas station, grab them and do the same as with the rope: we put the generator on the beam, connect the wire and hanging on the wire, and then jump into the attic.
  1. Fire extinguisher, Behind the Neighbor's house there are abandoned buildings, in one of which it is located. This house is red with blue on the sides. Climb onto it and hang down on the rope to get inside and get the fire extinguisher. Take it and fly into the attic.
  1. Propeller-hat, It is located in a lodge on the Neighbor lawn that looks similar to a toilet. It is locked with a blue padlock, which requires the matched key. You find it in one of the houses and open the toilet. Take away the propeller and fly into the attic.

It all ends with Quentin entering the attic and grabbing the second Forest Protector costume. He runs out back and sees the Neighbor with a car (and the Man In The Hat will be standing in the distance under a lamppost). He walks out of the attic and sees the inscription: "You win?", This is where the Alpha ends.

At the moment, the plot of the prototype is unknown, but here is our theory on it, and it is as follows:

We play as a Watchman, in the Golden Apple Park where the death of Lucy Yi, who flew out of the rail and crashed to her death, occured. We must keep a watchful eye on the abandoned park, as Vandals climb over the fence and attempt to destroy the park's property, and they need to be driven out of the park. The more Vandals you drive out the more money that you earn at the end of the night. Unfortunately, a "Forest Protector" named the Guest, theorized to be Mr. Peterson, runs around the park in a suit with a long beak that hides his face and tries to scare Ike.

The game ends in a good or bad ending:

Good Ending

It is necessary, having fulfilled certain conditions, to activate the lever in a small booth near the rocket ride. After activating the lever, the attraction will begin to function and one of the rocket carts will break through the park’s wall. Behind the wall, there is the Weather Station, also known as "Mayak" by the fanbase, after which the window lights up after the destruction of the wall, and the prototype of the game ends.

Bad Ending

For this ending, you need to continuously get caught over and over. Everytime you get caught more and more Bombs get placed on the wall that encases the Weather Station. Eventually, once you get caught enough, the bad ending will play. In the bad ending, the Guest blows up the wall with the Bombs resulting in the Weather Station being damaged and you and the Guest being injured. The prototype then abruptly sends you to the title screen.


First Clues

It first began with tinyBuild posting 2 screenshots to their Twitter that depicted Theodore Peterson (better known as The Neighbor) on a camera. He is wearing his ordinary outfit. The other screenshot of a character holding a radar, also being recorded. It isn't confirmed who it is exactly since their face is mostly hidden.

There is a red text that either read "Distance: 4" or "Distance: 6", this presumably indicates how far away The Neighbor is.

Secret Password (protected archive with Prototype)

On December 20, 2019, after the release of the Secret Neighbor Christmas Update, the message "/ HGP" appeared on the board in the room of the Neighbor. This code was used to access a secret website that is used to download HGP.

When you entered the website, which was found by ClassicJrb, there was a button on the site that gave the download. The file was password-protected, which could be obtained by activating the Mayak event and using the printer to get 20 different hexadecimal codes.

Later, on January 5, 2020, GreenHouseM13 used clues given by the creator of HN, Nikita, that he had put in his status. The clues lead to how the codes were supposed to be put together, and the end result looked like this:

f0ac0f112a01a5c0aae735be1f9e18a2f67b9e06a8911f9954746d96599c78a99909876878979879 .

The file contained a prototype launcher for the game. After launching the launcher, the game will be installed (about 600 MB in size). After the installation, you are able to play Hello Guest prototype.

More Clues

Later, in January 2020, two videos were posted on the official Twitter: with a facial animation test for the Neighbor and the house of Neighbor.

In the Update Secret Neighbor, was added a new secret in the form of a small video, which can be found in the trunk of the Man In The Hat's car by activating the secret. In the recording, Quentin can be seen grabbing a vandal by the hands. Then the angle changes to the Man in the Hat, who takes him somewhere.

TV Show Gameplay Trailer

The broadcast to the test pilot of the first episode of Hello Neighbor TV Show (Breaking and Entering) featured screenshots of the game, as well as a small gameplay piece.

Alpha 1 (HG)

At night, June 2, 2020, a small excerpt from the trailer for Hello Neighbor 2 was shown, as well as an image for Steam and the old game logo. According to Alex Nichiporchik, this is Hello Guest Alpha 1, which was released on June 6, 2020. On June 3, 2020, a game site was created on which screenshots of Hello Guest Alpha 1 were provided. On the day of release, for serious reasons, HG Alpha 1 was postponed to June 13, 2020. . The game trailer was released on the same day. For the period from June 6 to June 13, developers began to slowly merge HG Alpha 1 screenshots, and on June 10 a teaser for the game was even shown. HG Alpha 1 was available as a demo on Steam, the Windows 10 Store, and on the game’s official website (after the release of Hello Neighbor 2 Alpha 1, Hello Guest Alpha 1 will only be available at the last source listed here). After the release, two patches came out, correcting some errors.

Mysterious streaming premiere

On July 15, 2020 TinyBuild published a strange premiere preview which looked like an eye inside the grille shaped like a diamond on the red backgroud, Alex in the Hello Neighbor Discord Server said that this is the logo of the new studio Eerie Guest Studios in which will work redeemed by developers Dynamic Pixels and where they will work on Hello Neighbor 2. Later, on July 17, the premiere screen began to change, new screens appeared, with the presence of a raven and strange structures. Then, on the tinyBuild channel, access to the stream was removed. But still, you can follow the link to go to the premiere on the same channel on Youtube.

Hello Neighbor 2

On July 23, 2020, the trailer for Hello Neighbor 2 was released, which caused a lot of questions among fans. It was also shown in the broadcast. There Alex also told that in fact Hello Guest - it's Hello Neighbor 2. On the same day, Alpha 1 was released.

Diary site

In the announced trailer for Hello Neighbor 2, a forward slash and 5 letters ("d", "i", "a", "r" and "y") were found that make up "/ diary". As in the case with "/ hgp" - this is a part of the link, which must also be inserted at the end of the link. But in this case - at the end of the link to the official website Hello Neighbor 2. And it turned out the following:

Initially, the page had a black background, and on it - black letters, forming the word "tomorow" ("tomorrow"). Later, the black background and letters were replaced with a background similar to the texture of plywood. Even later on the page from above and below appeared wood, because of which the site resembled a wall board. Also appeared: a piece of wallpaper with the inscription "Observations" and some scrap of a photo of Quentin. Later, they added: another piece of wallpaper with the inscription "These guys are planning something"; sticker with the image of a crow; Hello Neighbor 2 logo, buttoned A screenshot taken from the game's official website; A screenshot taken from the trailer for the game; previously, nowhere used picture, on which the Neighbor with a pitchfork in his hand climbs the stairs, and just above it the shadow of the Guest.

It is not yet known who this diary site belongs to.


  • The archive password consists of four-digit hex codes that can be obtained by activating the secret in Secret Neighbor after version
  • Hello Guest prototype used a Patch Kit launcher.
  • Hello Guest Prototype (HGP) is the second unfinished game released by developers, not from Steam or Epic Games (the first is Hello Neighbor: Hide & Seek Alpha).
  • The Hello Guest prototype is the second prototype of the series (the first is the Hello Neighbor prototype), but unlike the Hello Neighbor prototype, the Hello Guest prototype is publicly available.
  • This game has been through many different versions, and has been in development for over 18+ months. The game, as said by Alex Nichiporchik, is "Nowhere near completion".
  • The game takes place in the amusement park "Golden Apple Park" (HG). This is confirmed by a broken inscription above the gate.
  • It has been hinted that this game takes place after Hello Neighbor. Due to the game title currenty and the state of the house. Mr. Peterson's Forest Protector outfit looks dirty during his time living in the house in the forest. He also looks older.
  • In addition to objects from the original, the game uses objects from Hello Neighbor: Hide & Seek, namely the trees from Stages 3 and 4.
  • At the end of the video tinyBuild Year 9: The Trailer, shown in honor of the 9th anniversary of tinyBuild, flashed footage of the room in which the "Guest" was located. Most likely, this was the footage for the Hello Neighbor 2 trailer.
  • Interestingly, hints about Hello Neighbor 2 appeared even earlier, with the release of Secret Neighbor.
  • In that shot, you can see a mountain of boots on which lies a new chair, a traffic cone, and a bicycle.
  • In the prototype's menu, on the tent behind the tree, you can see the Guest.
  • A download without the password for HGP can be found here'
  • In Hello Guest prototype the icons looked realistic, with the release of Alpha 1 (HG) the icons changed to cartoony.
  • Some models and textures from the game are used in Secret Neighbor, but purely for the secret.
  • At night, June 2, 2020, a small excerpt from the trailer for Hello Guest Alpha 1 was shown.
  • On June 2, the website for Hello Neighbor 2 was released Here .
  • On Discord, Alex said that Hello Guest Alpha 1 had many experiments.
  • On June 4, 2020, a screenshot of the Steam game page was shown on Discord and it says that the game’s release date is October 2021. Most likely, this is the date of the full game of the game.
  • This is the first Single-player Hello Neighbor game in which you can play as different characters.
  • Like Secret Neighbor, Hello Neighbor 2 objects have 3D icons.
  • It was revealed that the game's original name was Late Night Shift, which was then changed to Hello Neighbor 2 to be finally changed to Hello Guest, and then back to Hello Neighbor 2.




Источник: []
, Reason 2020 Full Patch Code Archives


Linux distribution based on Debian
Ubuntu 20.04 "Focal Fossa"
DeveloperCanonical Ltd.
OS familyLinux
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen-source[1][2]
Initial release20 October 2004 (15 years ago) (2004-10-20)
Latest releaseUbuntu 20.04.1 / 6 August 2020 (41 days ago) (2020-08-06)[3]
Latest previewUbuntu 20.10 (Groovy Gorilla) Daily Build[4]
Marketing targetCloud computing, personal computers, servers, IoT
Available inMore than 55 languages by LoCos
Update methodSoftware Updater
Package managerGNOME Software, APT, dpkg, Snappy, flatpak
Kernel typeLinux kernel
Default user interfaceGNOME
LicenseFree software + some proprietarydevice drivers[6]

Ubuntu (/ʊˈbʊntuː/ (listen)uu-BUUN-too)[7] is a Linux distribution based on Debian mostly composed of free and open-source software.[8][9][10] Ubuntu is officially released in three editions: Desktop,[11]Server,[12] and Core[13] for Internet of things devices[14] and robots.[15][16] All the editions can run on the computer alone, or in a virtual machine.[17] Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing, with support for OpenStack.[18] Ubuntu's default desktop, as of version 17.10, is GNOME.

Ubuntu is released every six months, with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years.[7][19][20] As of 23 April 2020[update], the latest release and also the most recent long-term support release is 20.04 ("Focal Fossa"), which is supported until 2025 under public support and until 2030 as a paid option. The next release is due sometime in October 2020, and will most likely be titled 20.10.

Ubuntu is developed by Canonical,[21] and a community of other developers, under a meritocratic governance model.[7][22] Canonical provides security updates and support for each Ubuntu release, starting from the release date and until the release reaches its designated end-of-life (EOL) date.[7][23][24] Canonical generates revenue through the sale of premium services related to Ubuntu.[25][26]

Ubuntu is named after the Nguni philosophy of ubuntu, which Canonical indicates means "humanity to others" with a connotation of "I am what I am because of who we all are".[7]


Ubuntu is built on Debian's architecture and infrastructure, and comprises Linux server, desktop and discontinued phone and tablet operating system versions.[27] Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably every six months,[28] and each release receives free support for nine months (eighteen months prior to 13.04)[29] with security fixes, high-impact bug fixes and conservative, substantially beneficial low-risk bug fixes.[30] The first release was in October 2004.

Current long-term support (LTS) releases are supported for five years, and are released every two years. Since the release of Ubuntu 6.06, every fourth release receives long-term support (LTS).[28] Long-term support includes updates for new hardware, security patches and updates to the 'Ubuntu stack' (cloud computing infrastructure).[31] The first LTS releases were supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server; since Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, desktop support for LTS releases was increased to five years as well.[32][33][34] LTS releases get regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the updates published in that series to date.[35]

Ubuntu packages are based on packages from Debian's unstable branch, which are synchronised every six months. Both distributions use Debian's debpackage format and package management tools (e.g. APT and Ubuntu Software). Debian and Ubuntu packages are not necessarily binary compatible with each other, however, so packages may need to be rebuilt from source to be used in Ubuntu.[36] Many Ubuntu developers are also maintainers of key packages within Debian. Ubuntu cooperates with Debian by pushing changes back to Debian,[37] although there has been criticism that this does not happen often enough. Ian Murdock, the founder of Debian, had expressed concern about Ubuntu packages potentially diverging too far from Debian to remain compatible.[38] Before release, packages are imported from Debian unstable continuously and merged with Ubuntu-specific modifications. One month before release, imports are frozen, and packagers then work to ensure that the frozen features interoperate well together.

Ubuntu is currently funded by Canonical Ltd. On 8 July 2005, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided an initial funding of US$10 million. The purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all future versions of Ubuntu. Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation goal as to ensure the continuity of the Ubuntu project.[39]

On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for third-party cloud management platforms, such as those used at Amazon EC2.[40]

GNOME 3 has been the default GUI for Ubuntu Desktop,[41][42] while Unity is still the default in old versions,[43][44] up to 18.04 LTS.[45] Shuttleworth wrote on 8 April 2017, "We will invest in Ubuntu GNOME with the intent of delivering a fantastic all-GNOME desktop. We're helping the Ubuntu GNOME team, not creating something different or competitive with that effort. While I am passionate about the design ideas in Unity, and hope GNOME may be more open to them now, I think we should respect the GNOME design leadership by delivering GNOME the way GNOME wants it delivered. Our role in that, as usual, will be to make sure that upgrades, integration, security, performance and the full experience are fantastic."[46] Shuttleworth also mentioned that Canonical will cease development for Ubuntu Phone, Tablet, and convergence.[47]

32-biti386 processors have been supported up to Ubuntu 18.04, but users "will not be allowed to upgrade to Ubuntu 18.10 as dropping support for that architecture is being evaluated".[48] It was decided to support "legacy software", i.e. select 32-bit i386 packages for Ubuntu 19.10 and 20.04 LTS.[49]


A default installation of Ubuntu contains a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, Transmission, and several lightweight games such as Sudoku and chess.[50][51] Many additional software packages are accessible from the built in Ubuntu Software (previously Ubuntu Software Center) as well as any other APT-based package management tools. Many additional software packages that are no longer installed by default, such as Evolution, GIMP, Pidgin, and Synaptic, are still accessible in the repositories still installable by the main tool or by any other APT-based package management tool. Cross-distribution snap packages and flatpaks are also available,[52] that both allow installing software, such as some of Microsoft's software, in most of the major Linux operating systems (such as any currently supported Ubuntu version and in Fedora). The default file manager is GNOME Files, formerly called Nautilus.

All of the application software installed by default is free software. In addition, Ubuntu redistributes some hardware drivers that are available only in binary format, but such packages are clearly marked in the restricted component.[53]


Ubuntu aims to be secure by default.[54][55] User programs run with low privileges and cannot corrupt the operating system or other users' files. For increased security, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, which allows the root account to remain locked and helps prevent inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes.[56]Polkit is also being widely implemented into the desktop.

Most network ports are closed by default to prevent hacking.[57] A built-in firewall allows end-users who install network servers to control access. A GUI (GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall) is available to configure it.[58] Ubuntu compiles its packages using GCC features such as PIE and buffer overflow protection to harden its software.[59] These extra features greatly increase security at the performance expense of 1% in 32-bit and 0.01% in 64-bit.[60]

Ubuntu also supports full disk encryption[61] as well as encryption of the home and Private directories.[62]


The system requirements vary among Ubuntu products. For the Ubuntu desktop release 20.04 LTS, a PC with at least 2 GHz dual-core processor, 4 GB of RAM and 25 GB of free disk space is recommended.[63][64] For less powerful computers, there are other Ubuntu distributions such as Lubuntu and Xubuntu. Ubuntu supports the ARM architecture.[5][65][66][67][68] It is also available on Power ISA,[5][69][70][71] while older PowerPC architecture was at one point unofficially supported,[72] and now newer Power ISA CPUs (POWER8) are supported. AMD64 and x86_64 architectures are also officially supported.

Live images are the typical way for users to assess and subsequently install Ubuntu. These can be downloaded as a disk image (.iso) and subsequently burnt to a DVD and booted. Other methods include running the live version via UNetbootin, or Startup Disk Creator (a preinstalled tool on Ubuntu, available on machines already running the OS) directly from a USB drive (making, respectively, a live DVD or live USB medium). Running Ubuntu in this way is slower than running it from a hard drive, but does not alter the computer unless specifically instructed by the user. If the user chooses to boot the live image rather than execute an installer at boot time, there is still the option to then use an installer called Ubiquity to install Ubuntu once booted into the live environment.[73]Disk images of all current and past versions are available for download at the Ubuntu web site.[74] Various third-party programs such as Reconstructor are available to create customized copies of the Ubuntu Live DVDs (or CDs). "Minimal CDs" are available (for server use) that fit on a CD.

Additionally, USB flash drive installations can be used to boot Ubuntu and Kubuntu in a way that allows permanent saving of user settings and portability of the USB-installed system between physical machines (however, the computers' BIOS must support booting from USB).[75] In newer versions of Ubuntu, the Ubuntu Live USB creator can be used to install Ubuntu on a USB drive (with or without a live CD or DVD). Creating a bootable USB drive with persistence is as simple as dragging a slider to determine how much space to reserve for persistence; for this, Ubuntu employs casper.[76][77]

The desktop edition can also be installed using the Netboot image (a.k.a. netboot tarball) which uses the debian-installer and allows certain specialist installations of Ubuntu: setting up automated deployments, upgrading from older installations without network access, LVM or RAID partitioning, installs on systems with less than about 256 MB of RAM (although low-memory systems may not be able to run a full desktop environment reasonably).[78]

Package classification and support[edit]

Ubuntu divides most software into four domains to reflect differences in licensing and the degree of support available.[79] Some unsupported applications receive updates from community members, but not from Canonical Ltd.

Free software Non-free software
Canonical supported software domains MainRestricted
Unsupported UniverseMultiverse

Free software includes software that has met the Ubuntu licensing requirements,[79] which roughly correspond to the Debian Free Software Guidelines. Exceptions, however, include firmware, in the Main category, because although some firmware is not allowed to be modified, its distribution is still permitted.[80]

Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are made for important non-free software. Supported non-free software includes device drivers that can be used to run Ubuntu on some current hardware, such as binary-only graphics carddrivers. The level of support in the Restricted category is more limited than that of Main, because the developers may not have access to the source code. It is intended that Main and Restricted should contain all software needed for a complete desktop environment.[79] Alternative programs for the same tasks and programs for specialized applications are placed in the Universe and Multiverse categories.

In addition to the above, in which the software does not receive new features after an initial release, Ubuntu Backports is an officially recognized repository for backporting newer software from later versions of Ubuntu.[81] The repository is not comprehensive; it consists primarily of user-requested packages, which are approved if they meet quality guidelines. Backports receives no support at all from Canonical, and is entirely community-maintained.

The -updates repository provides stable release updates (SRU) of Ubuntu and are generally installed through update-manager. Each release is given its own -updates repository (e.g. intrepid-updates). The repository is supported by Canonical Ltd. for packages in main and restricted, and by the community for packages in universe and multiverse. All updates to the repository must meet certain requirements and go through the -proposed repository before being made available to the public.[82] Updates are scheduled to be available until the end of life for the release.

In addition to the -updates repository, the unstable -proposed repository contains uploads which must be confirmed before being copied into -updates. All updates must go through this process to ensure that the patch does truly fix the bug and there is no risk of regression.[83] Updates in -proposed are confirmed by either Canonical or members of the community.

Canonical's partner repository lets vendors of proprietary software deliver their products to Ubuntu users at no cost through the same familiar tools for installing and upgrading software.[84] The software in the partner repository is officially supported with security and other important updates by its respective vendors. Canonical supports the packaging of the software for Ubuntu[85][86][87] and provides guidance to vendors.[84] The partner repository is disabled by default and can be enabled by the user.[88] Some popular products distributed via the partner repository as of 28 April 2013[update] are Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Reader and Skype. The free software Wine compatibility layer can be installed to allow users to run Windows software.

Package Archives[edit]

A Personal Package Archive (PPA) is a software repository for uploading source packages to be built and published as an Advanced Packaging Tool (APT) repository by Launchpad.[89] While the term is used exclusively within Ubuntu, Launchpad's host, Canonical, envisions adoption beyond the Ubuntu community.[90]

Third-party software[edit]

Some third-party software that does not limit distribution is included in Ubuntu's multiverse component. The package ubuntu-restricted-extras additionally contains software that may be legally restricted, including support for MP3 and DVD playback, Microsoft TrueType core fonts, Sun'sJava runtime environment, Adobe'sFlash Player plugin, many common audio/video codecs, and unrar, an unarchiver for files compressed in the RAR file format.

Additionally, third-party application suites are available for purchase through Ubuntu Software,[91] including many games such as Braid and Oil Rush,[92] software for DVD playback and media codecs.


For further information on all Ubuntu releases including older ones not covered here, see Ubuntu version history.
Version Code name Release date General support until Security support (ESM) until
14.04 LTSTrusty Tahr 2014-04-17[93]Old version, no longer maintained: 2019-04[93]Older version, yet still maintained: 2022-04
16.04 LTSXenial Xerus[94]2016-04-21[95]Older version, yet still maintained: 2021-04[93]Older version, yet still maintained: 2024-04
18.04 LTSBionic Beaver 2018-04-26[96]Older version, yet still maintained: 2023-04[93]Older version, yet still maintained: 2028-04
20.04 LTSFocal Fossa 2020-04-23[97]Current stable version:2025-04[98]Current stable version:2030-04
20.10Groovy Gorilla[99]2020-10-22 Future release: 2021-07 n/a
Older version, still maintained

Each Ubuntu release has a version number that consists of the year and month number of the release.[100] For example, the first release was Ubuntu 4.10 as it was released on 20 October 2004.

Ubuntu releases are also given alliterativecode names, using an adjective and an animal (e.g. "Xenial Xerus"). With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer, at least until restarting the cycle with the release of Artful Aardvark in October 2017.[101] Commonly, Ubuntu releases are referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name; for example, the 18.04 LTS release is commonly known as "Bionic". Releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases.

Upgrades from one LTS release to the next LTS release (e.g. Ubuntu 16.04 LTS to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS and then to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS) are supported,[102] while upgrades from non-LTS have only supported upgrade to the next release, regardless of its LTS status (e.g. Ubuntu 15.10 to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS). However, it is possible to skip an LTS upgrade, going straight from 16.04 LTS to 18.04.5 LTS, by waiting for a point release that supports such updating.

LTS releases have optional extended security maintenance (ESM) support available, including 14.04 "Trusty"[103] that is otherwise out of public support, adding support for that version up to 2022.[93]

Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat), was released on 10 October 2010 (10–10–10). This departed from the traditional schedule of releasing at the end of October in order to get "the perfect 10",[104] and makes a playful reference to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy books, since, in binary, 101010 equals decimal 42, the "Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything" within the series.[105]

Ubuntu (16.04.5 and later) requires a 2 GB or larger installation medium.[106][107] However, there is an option to install it with a Minimal CD.[108]


Ubuntu Desktop (formally named as Ubuntu Desktop Edition, and simply called Ubuntu) is the variant officially recommended for most users. It is designed for desktop and laptop PCs and officially supported by Canonical. From Ubuntu 17.10, GNOME Shell is the default desktop environment. From Ubuntu 11.04 to Ubuntu 17.04, the Unity desktop interface was default. A number of other variants are distinguished simply by each featuring a different desktop environment.[74]LXQt and Xfce[109] are often recommended for use with older PCs that may have less memory and processing power available.

Official distributions[edit]

These Ubuntu variants simply install an initial set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them.[110]

Distribution Description
KubuntuAn official derivative of Ubuntu Linux using KDE instead of the GNOME or Unity interfaces used by default in Ubuntu.[111]
LubuntuLubuntu is a project that is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", using the LXQtdesktop environment (used LXDE before 18.10).[112][113][114]
Ubuntu BudgieAn official derivative of Ubuntu using Budgie.
Ubuntu KylinAn official derivative aimed at the Chinese market.
Ubuntu MATEAn official derivative of Ubuntu using MATE, a desktop environment forked from the now-defunct GNOME 2 code base, with an emphasis on the desktop metaphor.[115]
Ubuntu Server Ubuntu has a server edition[116][117] that uses the same APT repositories as the Ubuntu Desktop Edition. The differences between them are the absence of an X Window environment in a default installation of the server edition (although one can easily be installed, including Unity, GNOME, KDE or Xfce), and some alterations to the installation process.[118] The server edition uses a screen-mode, character-based interface for the installation, instead of a graphical installation process. This enables installation on machines with a serial or "dumb terminal" interface without graphics support.

The server edition (like the desktop version) supports hardware virtualization and can be run in a virtual machine, either inside a host operating system or in a hypervisor, such as VMwareESXi, Oracle, CitrixXenServer, MicrosoftHyper-V, QEMU, a Kernel-based Virtual Machine, or any other IBM PC compatible emulator or virtualizer. AppArmor security module for the Linux kernel is used by default on key software packages, and the firewall is extended to common services used by the operating system.

  • Runs on all major (64-bit) architectures – x86-64, ARM v7, ARM64, POWER8[119] and later and IBM System z mainframes via LinuxONE.[120] and has initial support for RISC-V. 32-bit x86 are still supported in older Ubuntu Server versions. SPARC is no longer commercially supported.
  • Supports ZFS, a file system with snapshot capabilities, since Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.[121][122][123]
  • Has LXD, a hypervisor to manage LXC Linux containers.
  • Includes the first production release of DPDK for line-speed kernel networking.
  • Uses the latest long-term release Linux kernel and systemd service manager.
  • Is certified as a guest on AWS, Microsoft Azure, Joyent, IBM and HP Cloud.[120]
  • Netplan support[116] (available since Ubuntu 16.04 LTS)
  • snap package manager
  • LVM encryption support

It has versions of key server software pre-installed, including: Tomcat, PostgreSQL (v12.2), Docker , Python (v3.8), PHP (v7.4), NGINX (v1.17), and MySQL (v8.0).

Ubuntu StudioBased on Ubuntu, providing open-source applications for multimedia creation aimed at the audio, video and graphic editors.[124]
XubuntuAn official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses mostly GTK+ applications.[125]

Ubuntu had some official distributions that have been discontinued, such as Edubuntu; including some previously supported by Canonical, like Ubuntu Touch, that is now maintained by volunteers (UBports Community).

Cloud computing[edit]

Ubuntu offers Ubuntu Cloud Images which are pre-installed disk images that have been customized by Ubuntu engineering to run on cloud-platforms such as Amazon EC2, OpenStack, Microsoft Azure and LXC.[126] Ubuntu is also prevalent on VPS platforms such as DigitalOcean.[127] Ubuntu has support for OpenStack, with Eucalyptus to OpenStack migration tools added by Canonical.[128][129]Ubuntu 11.10 added focus on OpenStack as the Ubuntu's preferred IaaS offering though Eucalyptus is also supported. Another major focus is Canonical Juju for provisioning, deploying, hosting, managing, and orchestrating enterprise data center infrastructure services, by, with, and for the Ubuntu Server.[130][131]

Adoption and reception[edit]

Installed base[edit]

As Ubuntu is distributed freely and there is no registration process, Ubuntu usage can only be roughly estimated.[132] In 2015, Canonical's Ubuntu Insights page stated "Ubuntu now has over 40 million desktop users and counting".[133]

W3Techs Web Technology Surveys estimated in April 2020 that:

  • Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution for running web servers, used by 39.6% of "all the websites" they analyze,[134] and Ubuntu alone powers more websites than Microsoft Windows. All Linux distributions in total power well over twice the number of hosts as Windows for websites based on W3Techs numbers. Ubuntu and Debian only (which Ubuntu is based on, with the same package manager and thus administered the same way) make up 56.6% of all Linux distributions for web serving use; the usage of Ubuntu surpassed Debian (for such server use) in May 2016.
  • Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution among the top 1000 sites and gains around 500 of the top 10 million websites per day.[135]

W3Techs analyzes the top 10 million websites only.[136]

Wikimedia Foundation data (based on user agent) for September 2013 shows that Ubuntu generated the most page requests to Wikimedia sites, including Wikipedia, among recognizable Linux distributions.[137][138]

Large-scale deployments[edit]

The public sector has also adopted Ubuntu. As of January 2009[update], the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Macedonia deployed more than 180,000[139] Ubuntu-based classroom desktops, and has encouraged every student in the country to use Ubuntu-powered computer workstations;[140] the Spanish school system has 195,000 Ubuntu desktops.[139] The French police, having already started using open-source software in 2005 by replacing Microsoft Office with, decided to transition to Ubuntu from Windows XP after the release of Windows Vista in 2006.[141] By March 2009, the Gendarmerie Nationale had already switched 5000 workstations to Ubuntu.[141] Based on the success of that transition, it planned to switch 15,000 more over by the end of 2009 and to have switched all 90,000 workstations over by 2015 (GendBuntu project).[141] Lt. Colonel Guimard announced that the move was very easy and allowed for a 70% saving on the IT budget without having to reduce its capabilities.[141] In 2011, Ubuntu 10.04 was adopted by the Indian justice system.[142] The Government of Kerala adopted Ubuntu for the legislators in Kerala and the government schools of Kerala began to use customized IT@School Project Ubuntu 10.04 which contains specially created software for students. Previously, Windows was used in the schools. Textbooks were also remade with an Ubuntu syllabus and was used in schools as of 2011.[143]

The city of Munich, Germany, forked Kubuntu 10.04 LTS and created LiMux for use on the city's computers.[144] After originally planning to migrate 12,000 desktop computers to LiMux, it was announced in December 2013 that the project had completed successfully with the migration of 14,800 out of 15,500 desktop computers,[145] but still keeping about 5000 Windows clients for unported applications. In February 2017 the majority coalition decided, against heavy protest from the opposition,[146] to evaluate the migration back to Windows,[147] after Microsoft had decided to move its company headquarters to Munich.[148] Governing Mayor Dieter Reiter cited lack of compatibility with systems outside of the administrative sector, such as requiring a governmental mail server to send e-mails to his personal smartphone, as reasons for the return, but has been criticised for evaluating administrative IT based on private and business standards.[149]

In March 2012, the government of Iceland launched a project to get all public institutions using free and open-source software. Already, several government agencies and schools have adopted Ubuntu. The government cited cost savings as a big factor for the decision, and also stated that open-source software avoids vendor lock-in. A 12-month project was launched to migrate the biggest public institutions in Iceland to using open-source software, and help ease the migration for others.[150] US president Barack Obama's successful campaign for re-election in 2012 used Ubuntu in its IT department.[151] In August 2014, the city of Turin, Italy, announced its migration from Windows XP to Ubuntu for the 8,300 desktop computers used by the municipality, becoming the first city in Italy to adopt Ubuntu.[152][153]


Ubuntu was awarded the Reader Award for best Linux distribution at the 2005 LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in London,[154] received favorable reviews in online and print publications,[155][156] and has won InfoWorld's 2007 Bossie Award for Best Open Source Client OS.[157] In early 2008, PC World named Ubuntu the "best all-around Linux distribution available today", though it criticized the lack of an integrated desktop effects manager.[158] Chris DiBona, the program manager for open-source software at Google, said "I think Ubuntu has captured people's imaginations around the Linux desktop," and "If there is a hope for the Linux desktop, it would be them". As of January 2009[update], almost half of Google's 20,000 employees used Goobuntu, a slightly modified version of Ubuntu.[139] In 2012, ZDNet reported that Ubuntu was still Google's desktop of choice.[159] In March 2016, Matt Hartley picked a list of best Linux distributions for Datamation; he chose Ubuntu as number one.[160]

In 2008, Jamie Hyneman, co-host of the American television series MythBusters, advocated Linux (giving the example of Ubuntu) as a solution to software bloat.[161] Other celebrity users of Ubuntu include science fiction writer Cory Doctorow[162] and actor Stephen Fry.[163]

In January 2014, the UK's authority for computer security, CESG, reported that Ubuntu 12.04 LTS was "the only operating system that passes as many as 9 out of 12 requirements without any significant risks", though it was unclear if any other Linux distributions were tested.[164]

32-bit "deprecation" controversy[edit]

In June 2019, Canonical announced that they would be deprecating support for 32-bit applications and libraries in Ubuntu 19.10.

Because Steam's Linux client depends on these 32-bit libraries, Valve announced that they would no longer be supporting Ubuntu. After uproar from the Linux gaming community, Canonical backtracked on this decision and decided to support select 32-bit libraries. As a result, Valve will support Ubuntu 19.10 again.[165][166]

Wine needs most of the same 32-bit library packages that the Steam package depends on, and more, to enable its version of WoW64 to run 32-bit Windows applications. The parts of Wine that would continue to function without 32-bit libraries would be limited to the subset of Windows applications that have a 64-bit version, removing decades of Windows compatibility. In Canonical's statement[167]on bringing back the libraries, they mentioned using "container technology" in the future to make sure that Wine continues to function.

Conformity with European data privacy law[edit]

Soon after being introduced, doubts emerged on the conformance of the shopping lens with the European Data Protection Directive.[168][169] A petition was later signed by over 50 Ubuntu users and delivered to Canonical demanding various modifications to the feature in order to clearly frame it within European law.[170][self-published source?] Canonical did not reply.

In 2013, a formal complaint on the shopping lens was filed with the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO), the UK data privacy office. Almost one year later the ICO ruled in favour of Canonical, considering the various improvements introduced to the feature in the meantime to render it conformable with the Data Protection Directive.[171][self-published source?] According to European rules, this ruling is automatically effective in the entirety of the European Union. However, the ruling also made clear that at the time of introduction the feature was not legal, among other things, since it was missing a privacy policy statement.

Local communities (LoCos)[edit]

In an effort to reach out to users who are less technical, and to foster a sense of community around the distribution, Local Communities,[172] better known as "LoCos", have been established throughout the world. Originally, each country had one LoCo Team. However, in some areas, most notably the United States and Canada, each state or province may establish a team.[173] A LoCo Council approves teams based upon their efforts to aid in either the development or the promotion of Ubuntu.[174]

Hardware vendor support[edit]

Ubuntu works closely with OEMs to jointly make Ubuntu available on a wide range of devices.[175] A number of vendors offer computers with Ubuntu pre-installed, including Dell,[176]Hasee,[177]Sharp Corporation, and Cirrus7.[178][179] Specifically, Dell offers the XPS 13 laptop, Developer Edition with Ubuntu pre-installed.[180] Together, Dell, Lenovo, HP, and Acer offer over 200 desktop and over 400 laptop PCs preloaded with Ubuntu.[181] System76 PCs are also sold with Ubuntu.[182] Dell and System76 customers are able to choose between 30-day, three-month, and yearly Ubuntu support plans through Canonical.[183] Dell computers (running Ubuntu 10.04) include extra support for ATI/AMD Video Graphics, Dell Wireless, Fingerprint Readers, HDMI,

Источник: []
Reason 2020 Full Patch Code Archives

Software cracking

Modification of software, often to use it for free

Software cracking (known as "breaking" in the 1980s[1]) is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection features (including protection against the manipulation of software, serial number, hardware key, date checks and disc check) or software annoyances like nag screens and adware.

A crack refers to the means of achieving, for example a stolen serial number or a tool that performs that act of cracking.[2] Some of these tools are called keygen, patch, or loader. A keygen is a handmade product serial number generator that often offers the ability to generate working serial numbers in your own name. A patch is a small computer program that modifies the machine code of another program. This has the advantage for a cracker to not include a large executable in a release when only a few bytes are changed.[3] A loader modifies the startup flow of a program and does not remove the protection but circumvents it.[4][5] A well-known example of a loader is a trainer used to cheat in games.[6]Fairlight pointed out in one of their .nfo files that these type of cracks are not allowed for warez scene game releases.[7][4][8] A nukewar has shown that the protection may not kick in at any point for it to be a valid crack.[9]

The distribution of cracked copies is illegal in most countries. There have been lawsuits over cracking software.[10] It might be legal to use cracked software in certain circumstances.[11] Educational resources for reverse engineering and software cracking are, however, legal and available in the form of Crackme programs.


The first software copy protection was applied to software for the Apple II,[12]Atari 800, and Commodore 64 computers.[citation needed]. Software publishers have implemented increasingly complex methods in an effort to stop unauthorized copying of software.

On the Apple II, unlike modern computers that use standardized device drivers to manage device communications, the operating system directly controlled the step motor that moves the floppy drive head, and also directly interpreted the raw data, called nibbles, read from each track to identify the data sectors. This allowed complex disk-based software copy protection, by storing data on half tracks (0, 1, 2.5, 3.5, 5, 6...), quarter tracks (0, 1, 2.25, 3.75, 5, 6...), and any combination thereof. In addition, tracks did not need to be perfect rings, but could be sectioned so that sectors could be staggered across overlapping offset tracks, the most extreme version being known as spiral tracking. It was also discovered that many floppy drives did not have a fixed upper limit to head movement, and it was sometimes possible to write an additional 36th track above the normal 35 tracks. The standard Apple II copy programs could not read such protected floppy disks, since the standard DOS assumed that all disks had a uniform 35-track, 13- or 16-sector layout. Special nibble-copy programs such as Locksmith and Copy II Plus could sometimes duplicate these disks by using a reference library of known protection methods; when protected programs were cracked they would be completely stripped of the copy protection system, and transferred onto a standard format disk that any normal Apple II copy program could read.

One of the primary routes to hacking these early copy protections was to run a program that simulates the normal CPU operation. The CPU simulator provides a number of extra features to the hacker, such as the ability to single-step through each processor instruction and to examine the CPU registers and modified memory spaces as the simulation runs (any modern disassembler/debugger can do this). The Apple II provided a built-in opcode disassembler, allowing raw memory to be decoded into CPU opcodes, and this would be utilized to examine what the copy-protection was about to do next. Generally there was little to no defense available to the copy protection system, since all its secrets are made visible through the simulation. However, because the simulation itself must run on the original CPU, in addition to the software being hacked, the simulation would often run extremely slowly even at maximum speed.

On Atari 8-bit computers, the most common protection method was via "bad sectors". These were sectors on the disk that were intentionally unreadable by the disk drive. The software would look for these sectors when the program was loading and would stop loading if an error code was not returned when accessing these sectors. Special copy programs were available that would copy the disk and remember any bad sectors. The user could then use an application to spin the drive by constantly reading a single sector and display the drive RPM. With the disk drive top removed a small screwdriver could be used to slow the drive RPM below a certain point. Once the drive was slowed down the application could then go and write "bad sectors" where needed. When done the drive RPM was sped up back to normal and an uncracked copy was made. Of course cracking the software to expect good sectors made for readily copied disks without the need to meddle with the disk drive. As time went on more sophisticated methods were developed, but almost all involved some form of malformed disk data, such as a sector that might return different data on separate accesses due to bad data alignment. Products became available (from companies such as Happy Computers) which replaced the controller BIOS in Atari's "smart" drives. These upgraded drives allowed the user to make exact copies of the original program with copy protections in place on the new disk.

On the Commodore 64, several methods were used to protect software. For software distributed on ROM cartridges, subroutines were included which attempted to write over the program code. If the software was on ROM, nothing would happen, but if the software had been moved to RAM, the software would be disabled. Because of the operation of Commodore floppy drives, one write protection scheme would cause the floppy drive head to bang against the end of its rail, which could cause the drive head to become misaligned. In some cases, cracked versions of software were desirable to avoid this result. A misaligned drive head was rare usually fixing itself by smashing against the rail stops. Another brutal protection scheme was grinding from track 1 to 40 and back a few times.

Most of the early software crackers were computer hobbyists who often formed groups that competed against each other in the cracking and spreading of software. Breaking a new copy protection scheme as quickly as possible was often regarded as an opportunity to demonstrate one's technical superiority rather than a possibility of money-making. Some low skilled hobbyists would take already cracked software and edit various unencrypted strings of text in it to change messages a game would tell a game player, often something considered vulgar. Uploading the altered copies on file sharing networks provided a source of laughs for adult users. The cracker groups of the 1980s started to advertise themselves and their skills by attaching animated screens known as crack intros in the software programs they cracked and released. Once the technical competition had expanded from the challenges of cracking to the challenges of creating visually stunning intros, the foundations for a new subculture known as demoscene were established. Demoscene started to separate itself from the illegal "warez scene" during the 1990s and is now regarded as a completely different subculture. Many software crackers have later grown into extremely capable software reverse engineers; the deep knowledge of assembly required in order to crack protections enables them to reverse engineerdrivers in order to port them from binary-only drivers for Windows to drivers with source code for Linux and other free operating systems. Also because music and game intro was such an integral part of gaming the music format and graphics became very popular when hardware became affordable for the home user.

With the rise of the Internet, software crackers developed secretive online organizations. In the latter half of the nineties, one of the most respected sources of information about "software protection reversing" was Fravia's website.

Most of the well-known or "elite" cracking groups make software cracks entirely for respect in the "Scene", not profit. From there, the cracks are eventually leaked onto public Internet sites by people/crackers who use well-protected/secure FTP release archives, which are made into full copies and sometimes sold illegally by other parties.

The Scene today is formed of small groups of skilled people, who informally compete to have the best crackers, methods of cracking, and reverse engineering.


The High Cracking University (+HCU), was founded by Old Red Cracker (+ORC), considered a genius of reverse engineering and a legendary figure in RCE, to advance research into Reverse Code Engineering (RCE). He had also taught and authored many papers on the subject, and his texts are considered classics in the field and are mandatory reading for students of RCE.[13]

The addition of the "+" sign in front of the nickname of a reverser signified membership in the +HCU. Amongst the students of +HCU were the top of the elite Windows reversers worldwide.[13] +HCU published a new reverse engineering problem annually and a small number of respondents with the best replies qualified for an undergraduate position at the university.[13]

+Fravia was a professor at +HCU. Fravia's website was known as "+Fravia's Pages of Reverse Engineering" and he used it to challenge programmers as well as the wider society to "reverse engineer" the "brainwashing of a corrupt and rampant materialism". In its heyday, his website received millions of visitors per year and its influence was "widespread".[13]

Nowadays most of the graduates of +HCU have migrated to Linux and few have remained as Windows reversers. The information at the university has been rediscovered by a new generation of researchers and practitioners of RCE who have started new research projects in the field.[13]


The most common software crack is the modification of an application's binary to cause or prevent a specific key branch in the program's execution. This is accomplished by reverse engineering the compiled program code using a debugger such as SoftICE,[14]x64dbg, OllyDbg,[15]GDB, or MacsBug until the software cracker reaches the subroutine that contains the primary method of protecting the software (or by disassembling an executable file with a program such as IDA). The binary is then modified using the debugger or a hex editor or monitor in a manner that replaces a prior branching opcode with its complement or a NOPopcode so the key branch will either always execute a specific subroutine or skip over it. Almost all common software cracks are a variation of this type. Proprietary software developers are constantly developing techniques such as code obfuscation, encryption, and self-modifying code to make this modification increasingly difficult. Even with these measures being taken, developers struggle to combat software cracking. This is because it is very common for a professional to publicly release a simple cracked EXE or Retrium Installer for public download, eliminating the need for inexperienced users to crack the software themselves.

A specific example of this technique is a crack that removes the expiration period from a time-limited trial of an application. These cracks are usually programs that alter the program executable and sometimes the .dll or .so linked to the application. Similar cracks are available for software that requires a hardware dongle. A company can also break the copy protection of programs that they have legally purchased but that are licensed to particular hardware, so that there is no risk of downtime due to hardware failure (and, of course, no need to restrict oneself to running the software on bought hardware only).

Another method is the use of special software such as CloneCD to scan for the use of a commercial copy protection application. After discovering the software used to protect the application, another tool may be used to remove the copy protection from the software on the CD or DVD. This may enable another program such as Alcohol 120%, CloneDVD, Game Jackal, or Daemon Tools to copy the protected software to a user's hard disk. Popular commercial copy protection applications which may be scanned for include SafeDisc and StarForce.[16]

In other cases, it might be possible to decompile a program in order to get access to the original source code or code on a level higher than machine code. This is often possible with scripting languages and languages utilizing JIT compilation. An example is cracking (or debugging) on the .NET platform where one might consider manipulating CIL to achieve one's needs. Java'sbytecode also works in a similar fashion in which there is an intermediate language before the program is compiled to run on the platform dependent machine code.

Advanced reverse engineering for protections such as SecuROM, SafeDisc, StarForce, or Denuvo requires a cracker, or many crackers to spend much time studying the protection, eventually finding every flaw within the protection code, and then coding their own tools to "unwrap" the protection automatically from executable (.EXE) and library (.DLL) files.

There are a number of sites on the Internet that let users download cracks produced by warez groups for popular games and applications (although at the danger of acquiring malicious software that is sometimes distributed via such sites).[17] Although these cracks are used by legal buyers of software, they can also be used by people who have downloaded or otherwise obtained unauthorized copies (often through P2P networks).

Trial reset[edit]

Many commercial programs that can be downloaded from the Internet have a trial period (often 30 days) and must be registered (i.e. be bought) after its expiration if the user wants to continue to use them. To reset the trial period, registry entries and/or hidden files that contain information about the trial period are modified and/or deleted. For this purpose, crackers develop "trial resetters" for a particular program or sometimes also for a group of programs by the same manufacturer.
A method to make trial resets less attractive is the limitation of the software during the trial period (e.g., some features are only available in the registered version; pictures/videos/hardcopies created with the program get a watermark; the program runs for only 10–20 minutes and then closes automatically). Some programs have an unlimited trial period, but are limited until their registration.

See also[edit]


  1. ^Kevelson, Morton (October 1985). "Isepic". Ahoy!. pp. 71–73. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
  2. ^Tulloch, Mitch (2003). Microsoft Encyclopedia of Security(PDF). Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press. p. 68. ISBN .
  3. ^Craig, Paul; Ron, Mark (April 2005). "Chapter 4: Crackers". In Burnett, Mark (ed.). Software Piracy Exposed - Secrets from the Dark Side Revealed. Publisher: Andrew Williams, Page Layout and Art: Patricia Lupien, Acquisitions Editor: Jaime Quigley, Copy Editor: Judy Eby, Technical Editor: Mark Burnett, Indexer: Nara Wood, Cover Designer: Michael Kavish. United States of America: Syngress Publishing. pp. 75–76. doi:10.1016/B978-193226698-6/50029-5. ISBN .
  4. ^ abFLT (January 22, 2013). "The_Sims_3_70s_80s_and_90s_Stuff-FLT".
  5. ^Shub-Nigurrath [ARTeam]; ThunderPwr [ARTeam] (January 2006). "Cracking with Loaders: Theory, General Approach, and a Framework". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 (1).
  6. ^Nigurrath, Shub (May 2006). "Guide on how to play with processes memory, writing loaders, and Oraculumns". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 (2).
  7. ^FLT (September 29, 2013). "Test_Drive_Ferrari_Legends_PROPER-FLT".
  8. ^SKIDROW (January 21, 2013). "Test.Drive.Ferrari.Racing.Legends.Read.Nfo-SKIDROW".
  9. ^"Batman.Arkham.City-FiGHTCLUB nukewar". December 2, 2011. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014.
  10. ^Cheng, Jacqui (September 27, 2006). "Microsoft files lawsuit over DRM crack". Ars Technica.
  11. ^Fravia (November 1998). "Is reverse engineering legal?".
  12. ^Pearson, Jordan (July 24, 2017). "Programmers Are Racing to Save Apple II Software Before It Goes Extinct". Motherboard. Archived from the original on September 27, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
  13. ^ abcdeCyrus Peikari; Anton Chuvakin (January 12, 2004). Security Warrior. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. 31. ISBN .
  14. ^Ankit, Jain; Jason, Kuo; Jordan, Soet; Brian, Tse (April 2007). "Software Cracking (April 2007)"(PDF). The University of British Columbia - Electrical and Computer Engineering. Retrieved January 27, 2018.Cite journal requires (help)
  15. ^Wójcik, Bartosz. "Reverse engineering tools review". PELock. Archived from the original on September 13, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  16. ^Gamecopyworld Howto
  17. ^McCandless, David (April 1, 1997). "Warez Wars". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
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